## interactive

### BibTeX

@MISC{Vik_interactive,

author = {Knut-helge Vik and Carsten Griwodz},

title = {interactive},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

tree diameter for dynamic distributed

### Citations

468 | Vivaldi: A Decentralized Network Coordinate System
- Dabek, Cox, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ithm creates/updates the group distribution tree (section III-D). We here present algorithms related to manipulation and construction. Extensive research that addresses identification may be found in =-=[4]-=-. Identification is independent of manipulation and construction, and its discussion therefore lies outside the scope of this paper. B. Core selection heuristics Core-based multicast protocols offer e... |

292 | ALMI: An Application Level Multicast Infrastructure
- Pendarakis, Shi, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bers into a hierarchy of layers and proposes arrangement and data-forwarding schemes. In Narada [5], end systems organize themselves into an overlay structure using a fully distributed protocol. ALMI =-=[16]-=- is centrally managed applicationlevel group communication middleware, tailored toward the support of relatively small multicast groups with many-tomany semantics. These proposed protocols are startin... |

108 | BRITE: Universal topology generation from a user’s perspective
- Medina, Lakhina, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cal center. In our experiments, we assume that some identification process in the central entity identifies a fully meshed graph where all edges have an associated weight. For this, we used the BRITE =-=[13]-=- topology generator to generate Internet-like router networks. We simulated an overlay network, so the network graph was translated into an undirected fully-meshed shortest-path graph. Furthermore, th... |

68 | Latency and Player Actions in Online Games
- Claypool, Claypool
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to interact concurrently in a persistent virtual environment. Such games often have stringent latency requirements. The characteristics of game traffic have been analyzed several times before, and in =-=[3]-=-, the latency requirements were measured to be approximately 100 ms for FPS games, 500 ms for RPGs and 1000 ms for RTS games. In audio conferencing and voice over IP (VoIP) with real-time delivery of ... |

65 | Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication
- Kwon, Fahmy
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... multicast protocols and offers more robust group communication. There exist overlay multicast protocols that are topology-aware and are designed to achieve lower latencies and better bandwidth usage =-=[11]-=-. Many overlay multicast protocols have been proposed, but there remains room for improvement, especially regarding the construction of overlay networks. The Yoid project [6] provides an architecture ... |

53 | Dimensioning server access bandwidth and multicast routing in overlay networks
- Shi, Turner, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...degree. One issue with the MDDL problem is that it is a minimization of the maximum diameter within a degree limit, which increases the complexity of a heuristic. The MDDL-heuristic compact-tree (CT) =-=[18]-=- (described in section III-D), is a greedy algorithm based on Prim’s minimum-spanning tree algorithm [7]. Figure 1 compares the execution time of CT for a complete graph to some graphs with reduced (p... |

47 |
Algorithm Design: Foundations, Analysis, and Internet Examples
- Goodrich, Tamassia
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ree limit, which increases the complexity of a heuristic. The MDDL-heuristic compact-tree (CT) [18] (described in section III-D), is a greedy algorithm based on Prim’s minimum-spanning tree algorithm =-=[7]-=-. Figure 1 compares the execution time of CT for a complete graph to some graphs with reduced (pruned) edge sets, running our implementation on an Intel Core 2 Duo machine. We observe that the executi... |

44 | The narada event brokering system: Overview and extensions
- Fox, Pallickara
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t [6] provides an architecture for both space- and time-based multicast, and NICE [2] arranges group members into a hierarchy of layers and proposes arrangement and data-forwarding schemes. In Narada =-=[5]-=-, end systems organize themselves into an overlay structure using a fully distributed protocol. ALMI [16] is centrally managed applicationlevel group communication middleware, tailored toward the supp... |

43 | Overlay Mesh Construction Using Interleaved Spanning Trees
- Young, Chen, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stic. Each node in V − O includes its k best edges to the new pruned graph. Then, each node in O includes edges to all nodes in V into the new pruned graph. Step 1 is k Best Links (kBL) as defined in =-=[21]-=-. Step 2 was added to connect the core nodes strongly to the remaining nodes, as well as to ensure the connectedness of the new pruned graph. aCL produces a graph with |E| = k∗|V −O|+|O|∗|V |. After a... |

40 | An empirical assessment of algorithms for constructing a minimum spanning tree
- Moret, Shapiro
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...euristic to select a source node. Minimum-spanning tree (MST) [7] is Prim’s minimumspanning tree algorithm. Prim’s MST has been empirically shown to be the fastest MST algorithm for large densegraphs =-=[14]-=-. Shortest-path tree (SPT) [7] is Dijkstra’s shortest-path tree algorithm, which is almost exactly the same as Prim’s MST. SPT optimizes to find the shortest-path between a source and any target. Mini... |

35 | Greedy heuristics and an evolutionary algorithm for the bounded-diameter minimum spanning tree problem
- Raidl, Julstrom
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uilds a tree of minimum total cost within a diameter bound. BDMST is an NP -complete problem and examples of heuristics are one-time tree construction (OTTC) [1] and randomized greedy heuristic (RGH) =-=[17]-=-. An advantage of BDMST over MDST is that it is possible to tune the tree diameter while minimizing the total cost. However, one problem with BDMST remains the potentially high node degree of central ... |

27 |
Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree
- Narula, Ho
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h MDDL heuristics. For example, we found that the MDDL-heuristic CT has a high reconfiguration time, due to a worst-case time complexity of O(n 3 ). We have implemented a d-SPT heuristic called dlSPT =-=[15]-=- (described in section III-D). PROBLEM 8: Degree-limited minimum-spanning tree problem (d-MST): Given G, a degree bound d(v) ∈ N for each vertex v ∈ V ; find a spanning tree T , where the ∑ e∈ET c(e) ... |

14 | Analysis of the NICE Application Layer Multicast Protocol
- Banerjee, Bhattacharjee
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed, but there remains room for improvement, especially regarding the construction of overlay networks. The Yoid project [6] provides an architecture for both space- and time-based multicast, and NICE =-=[2]-=- arranges group members into a hierarchy of layers and proposes arrangement and data-forwarding schemes. In Narada [5], end systems organize themselves into an overlay structure using a fully distribu... |

9 | Random-tree diameter and the diameter-constrained MST
- Abdalla, Deo
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hich does not exeed D. A BDMST-algorithm builds a tree of minimum total cost within a diameter bound. BDMST is an NP -complete problem and examples of heuristics are one-time tree construction (OTTC) =-=[1]-=- and randomized greedy heuristic (RGH) [17]. An advantage of BDMST over MDST is that it is possible to tune the tree diameter while minimizing the total cost. However, one problem with BDMST remains t... |

9 | Core-selection algorithms in multicast routing – comparative and complexity analysis
- Karaman, Hassanein
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...protocols select one or more cores as group management and forwarding nodes. Several core selection heuristics have been proposed, a comprehensive study of which is given by and Karaman and Hassanein =-=[10]-=-. An overall goal is to select cores on the basis of certain node properties, such as, bandwidth and computational power. The number of cores that are selected depends on the group size and the degree... |

8 | Applicability of group communication for increased scalability in MMOGs - Vik, Griwodz, et al. - 2006 |

6 |
Yoid project
- Francis, Ratnasamy, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d better bandwidth usage [11]. Many overlay multicast protocols have been proposed, but there remains room for improvement, especially regarding the construction of overlay networks. The Yoid project =-=[6]-=- provides an architecture for both space- and time-based multicast, and NICE [2] arranges group members into a hierarchy of layers and proposes arrangement and data-forwarding schemes. In Narada [5], ... |

5 |
Bounded diameter minimum spanning trees and related problems
- Ho, Lee
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ree T of G such that the maximum weight shortest path p ∈ T , ∑ e∈p W(e) is minimized. An MDST-algorithm builds a tree of minimum diameter, and is solvable in polynomial time. Ho, Lee, Chang and Wong =-=[8]-=- considered the case in which the graph G is a complete Euclidian graph induced by a set of points in the Euclidian plane. They call this special case the geometric MDST problem. They prove that there... |

5 | Dynamic group membership management for distributed interactive applications - Vik, Griwodz, et al. - 1997 |

4 |
Immersive peer-to-peer audio streaming platform for massive online games
- Liu, Zimmermann
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ic. Furthermore, few, if any, protocols are able to maintain subsets of a larger set of nodes. An approach that looks at the maintenance of subgroups within a larger set of overlay nodes is PartyPeer =-=[12]-=-. This system creates subgroups by forming overlay multicast groups as subtrees of a tree that covers the entire set. However, the approach taken results in poorer performance, because subgroups are a... |