## Distributed Cooperative Formal Methods Tools (1997)

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Venue: | In Proc. Automated Software Engineering. IEEE |

Citations: | 7 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Goguen97distributedcooperative,

author = {Joseph Goguen and Kai Lin and Akira Mori and Grigore Rosu and Akiyoshi Sato},

title = {Distributed Cooperative Formal Methods Tools},

booktitle = {In Proc. Automated Software Engineering. IEEE},

year = {1997},

pages = {55--62},

publisher = {IEEE}

}

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### Abstract

: This paper describes some tools to support formal methods, and conversely some formal methods for developing such tools. We focus on distributed cooperative proving over the web. Our tools include a proof editor /assistant, servers for remote proof execution, a distributed truth protocol, an editor generator, and a new method for interface design called algebraic semiotics, which combines semiotics with algebraic specification. Some examples are given. 1. Introduction Formal methods have been used to prove correctness of software, but this task is known to be difficult, for various reasons [5, 13]. New technologies -- the internet, the web, multimedia, applets, etc. -- offer exciting opportunities to reduce this difficulty that have not yet been much explored. We seek to build industrial strength formal method tools for distributed work by ordinary software engineers over the web, especially for concurrent systems. This involves several challenging subtasks, including a practical ...

### Citations

118 |
Parameterized Programming
- Goguen
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t amazing that OBJ provides not only a simple, elegant way to specify sign systems, but also directly supports both blends and semiotic morphisms, through its facilities for parameterized programming =-=[4]-=-. 5. Current Status and Further Research We have used algebraic ADTs in several ways: to specify and verify object oriented systems (though this is not illustrated here -- see [9]), to define logics, ... |

111 | A hidden agenda
- Goguen, Malcolm
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., not how they are implemented; they provide a notion of behavioral type. Coinduction is new proof technique that is very effective for proving behavioral properties, e.g., behavioral refinement. See =-=[9]-=- for details. 3. Website Editing Maintenance, the process of modifying software to meet user expectations in the face of evolving platforms, working conditions, business environments, etc., consumes f... |

104 |
Algebraic Semantics of Imperative Programs
- Goguen, Malcolm
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...llowed); 6. a priority (partial) ordering on each Cn ; 7. some relations and functions on signs; and 8. a set A of axioms, constraining possible signs. 2 A sign system is really an abstract data type =-=[8, 7]-=- enriched with levels and priority; we exploit this by specifying sign systems in OBJ3 in Appendix A. We now consider the movement (mapping, translation, interpretation, representation) of signs in on... |

71 |
The logic of inexact concepts
- Goguen
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nation and contradiction are exceptions.) This extends in a natural way to "fuzzy" truth values (in the unit interval, using maximum for alternative proofs, and multiplication for proof chai=-=ns, as in [3]-=-), to take account of informal and semi-formal subproof; clearly this is more realistic for practical software development. A ProofDoag is a TruthDoag with the additional structure that each node has ... |

65 |
de: Course in General Linguistics
- Saussure
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o the next. Proofs that are structured this way might be easier to understand. 5 4.1. Sign Systems and Semiotic Morphisms ProofWebs, tatami pages, and status windows are signs. An insight of Saussure =-=[14]-=- that every sign should be considered part of a system of interrelated signs. The material in this section, taken from [6], gives a rigorous foundation for discussing the structure of such representat... |

58 | Institution morphisms
- Goguen, Ros¸u
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...provide a scientific basis for interface design. This is a major motivation for algebraic semiotics, which uses algebraic specification to study complex signs and the quality of their representations =-=[6]-=-. Semiotic representations are useful not only in interface design, but also in automating tool development, e.g., in WEG. Constructing non-trivial proofs usually requires exploring many misconception... |

57 |
The Transformation of Experience in Narrative Syntax
- Labov
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proofs more understandable and even interesting by restoring the local conflicts that motivate difficult proof steps, including failed proof attempts. Another resource is the theory of stories. Labov =-=[11] says oral narr-=-atives have a precise structure, involving a sequence of "narrative clauses" describing events whose order corresponds to their order in the story, interleaved with "evaluative material... |

33 | Theorem Proving and Algebra - Goguen - 1994 |

24 |
Screenplay: The Foundations of screenwriting
- Field
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cts that motivate difficult proof steps, in subProofWebs recording failured subproofs, and in links to interactive applets and other verbal and graphical explanations. Syd Field's screenwriting books =-=[2] suggest a-=- precise but naive structure: Hollywood plots should have three acts, for setup, conflict, and resolution, of 30, 60, 30 minutes, with "plot points" to move action from one act to the next. ... |

23 | Formality and Informality in Requirements Engineering
- Goguen
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tics with algebraic specification. Some examples are given. 1. Introduction Formal methods have been used to prove correctness of software, but this task is known to be difficult, for various reasons =-=[5, 13]-=-. New technologies -- the internet, the web, multimedia, applets, etc. -- offer exciting opportunities to reduce this difficulty that have not yet been much explored. We seek to build industrial stren... |

14 | Conceptual projection and middle spaces
- Fauconnier, Turner
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed in various ways by how much structure is preserved; see [6] for details. The specification of interfaces as semiotic morphisms is used by WEG in generating editor interfaces. Fauconnier and Turner =-=[1]-=- study the blending of (what they call) conceptual spaces, and suggest blending is a fundamental cognitive operation, with applications to metaphors, grammar, and much more. Many examples of blending ... |

10 | Algebraic semiotics, proofWebs, and distributed cooperative proving
- Goguen, Mori, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ese do not admit semiotic morphisms from the ProofWeb sign system, because they fail to preserve certain key constructors; 6 Figure 5: Screendumps of Three Status Window Versions details are given in =-=[10]-=-. We view this as a strong confirmation of our approach. Note that semiotic morphisms correspond to OBJ views, with partial morphisms given by views from sub-sign systems, as illustrated by the view S... |

10 |
The Ethnomethodology of Mathematics
- Livingston
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ofDoag upward) and checked by a proof server, after which proof status is updated. Work in sociology of mathematics has emphasized that proofs are constituted as such by communities of mathematicians =-=[12]-=-. It would be interesting to know in great detail how proofs function in and as communication, since we could use such information to improve our system. 2.2. 2-dimensional Doags Alternative proofs of... |

3 |
Formal methods: Problems and promises
- Luqi, Goguen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tics with algebraic specification. Some examples are given. 1. Introduction Formal methods have been used to prove correctness of software, but this task is known to be difficult, for various reasons =-=[5, 13]-=-. New technologies -- the internet, the web, multimedia, applets, etc. -- offer exciting opportunities to reduce this difficulty that have not yet been much explored. We seek to build industrial stren... |

3 |
The Writer's Journal: Mythic Structure for Storytellers & Screenwriters. Michael Wiese Productions
- Vogler
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st initial algebra semantics; then dynamic aspects of interface design can be captured. We also wish to explore using popup avatars for warnings, explanations, etc., perhaps following some ideas from =-=[16]-=-. Acknowledgments We thank Razvan Diaconescu for help with ordered category theory, Eric Livingston for discussions on social aspects of proof, and Kokichi Futatsugi for generous support and encourage... |

1 |
Proof Diagrams and Term Rewriting with Applications to Computational Algebra
- Shand
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al directed ordered acyclic graph, or 2-doag. Acyclic graph rather than tree structure arises because results can be produced and used more than once; see also Shand's hypergraph proof representation =-=[15]-=-. The goal of these formal definitions is to get the right abstraction level for the operation and correctness of the tatami protocol. A 2-doag consists of a set N of nodes, a set E of edges, two func... |