## Open-Ended Artificial Evolution (2001)

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Citations: | 8 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Standish01open-endedartificial,

author = {Russell K. Standish},

title = {Open-Ended Artificial Evolution},

year = {2001}

}

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### Abstract

Of all the issues discussed at Alife VII: Looking Forward, Looking Backward, the issue of whether it was possible to create an arti cial life system that exhibits open-ended evolution of novelty is by far the biggest.

### Citations

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557 | Three approaches to the quantitative definition of information - KOLMOGOROV - 1965 |

323 | An approach to the synthesis of life - Ray - 1991 |

241 | On the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences: statistical considerations
- Chaitin
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... any mutation changes the phenotype. The number of cold sites could be called the non-volatile site count, denoted CNV . A slightly more sophisticated calculation is to compute Css = ℓ − � ℓ log32 ni =-=(4)-=- i=1 where ni is the number of mutations at site i on the genome that lead to differing phenotypes, which we can call the single site entropy. For a completely cold site, ni = 1, and for a hot site ni... |

221 | The Quark and the Jaguar - Gell-Mann - 1994 |

143 |
Introduction to Artificial Life
- Adami
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... descriptions. ThissFebruary 6, 2008 18:23 WSPC/157-IJCIA alife-complexity-ijcia gives rise to the so called universal prior measure, defined as 10 PU(x) = � p:U computes x from p and halts 2 −ℓ(p) , =-=(1)-=- where U is the reference universal Turing machine, and ℓ(p) is the length of program p. The Shannon entropy computed using this probability distribution differs from the algorithmic complexity by at ... |

59 | Metazoan complexity and evolution: Is there a trend? Evolution 50:477–492 - McShea - 1996 |

59 | Open problems in artificial life
- Bedau, McCaskill, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... particular issue of random strings, a human being will classify all random strings as identical — all gibberish. The obvious generalisation of complexity is: C(x) = lim s→∞ s log 2 N − log 2 ω(s, x) =-=(3)-=- where C(x) is the complexity (measured in bits), N the size of the alphabet used to encode the description and ω(s, x) the size of the class of all descriptions equivalent to x and of length less tha... |

52 | A formal theory of inductive inference: Parts 1 and 2 - Solomonoff - 1964 |

40 |
On the length of programs for computing binary sequences
- Chaitin
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...utation changes the phenotype. The number of cold sites could be called the non-volatile site count, denoted C NV . A slightly more sophisticated calculation is to compute C ss = ` X i=1 ` log 32 n i =-=(4-=-) where n i is the number of mutations at site i on the genome that lead to diering phenotypes, which we can call the single site entropy. For a completely cold site, n i = 1, and for a hot site n i =... |

29 | Syntactic measures of complexity - Edmonds - 1999 |

27 | On improving clustering in numerical databases with arti ants - Monmarche, Slimane, et al. - 1999 |

26 | Decision support systems in the twenty-first century - MARAKAS - 1999 |

25 | Physical complexity of symbolic sequences
- Adami, Cerf
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bability distribution diers from the algorithmic complexity by at most a constant that depends only on the Turing machines chosen, not the description. 10 C(x) log 2 PU (x) = KU (x) + CU ; 9CU 0 (2)=-=-=- where KU (x) is the algorithmic complexity of x. There are two key problems with algorithmic complexity. Thesrst is the arbitrariness of the reference Turing machine U . The second relates to the beh... |

25 | On Complexity and Emergence - Standish - 2001 |

17 | Evolution of Differentiated Multi-threaded Digital Organisms - Ray, Hart - 1998 |

15 | Three approaches to the quantitative de of information. Problems of Information Transmission - Kolmogorov - 1965 |

12 | Some techniques for the measurement of complexity in Tierra - Standish - 1999 |

8 |
Introduction to Arti Life
- Adami
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...descriptions. This October 16, 2002 11:49 WSPC/157-IJCIA alife-complexity-ijcia 3 gives rise to the so called universal prior measure, dened as 10 PU (x) = X p:U computes x from p and halts 2 `(p) ; (=-=1-=-) where U is the reference universal Turing machine, and `(p) is the length of program p. The Shannon entropy computed using this probability distribution diers from the algorithmic complexity by at m... |

8 | A formal theory of inductive inference: Part 1 and 2 - Solomono - 1964 |

8 | Embryology in Tierra: A study of a genotype to phenotype map - Standish - 1997 |

7 | A proposal to create two biodiversity reserves: One digital and one organic. See ftp://tierra.slhs.udel.edu/tierra/doc/reserves.tex, http://www.hip.atr.co.jp/˜ray/pubs/reserves/reserves.html. Also see New Scientist, vol 150, no 2034 - Ray |

5 | The quark and the jaguar: adventures in the simple and the - Gell-Mann - 1995 |

5 | Must Early Life be Easy? The rhythm of major evolutionary transitions - Hanson - 1998 |

5 | Evolution of dierentiated multi-threaded digital organisms - Ray, Hart - 1998 |

4 | Must early life be easy? the rythm of major evolutionary transitions - Hanson |

3 | On an ecient implementation of Tierra - Standish - 1997 |

2 |
Open problems in arti life
- Bedau, McCaskill, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he particular issue of random strings, a human being will classify all random strings as identical | all gibberish. The obvious generalisation of complexity is: C(x) = lim s!1 s log 2 N log 2 !(s; x) =-=(3)-=- where C(x) is the complexity (measured in bits), N the size of the alphabet used to encode the description and !(s; x) the size of the class of all descriptions equivalent to x and of length less tha... |

2 | Evolution in the Multiverse - Standish |