## Impulse-based Dynamic Simulation (1995)

Citations: | 63 - 9 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Mirtich95impulse-baseddynamic,

author = {Brian Mirtich and John Canny},

title = {Impulse-based Dynamic Simulation},

year = {1995}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper discusses a new approach to dynamic simulation called impulse-based simulation. We have focused on the twin goals of physical accuracy and computational efficiency. Our simulator can accurately model complex dynamic systems in real time. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the impulse-based method for dynamic simulation, highlighting its differences from and advantages over more traditional constraint-based methods. Section 3 describes collision check scheduling, and how this standard bottleneck in dynamic simulation can be streamlined. Section 4 discusses our method of resolving collisions between bodies. We treat collisions in a fully general manner, accounting for friction as well as non-perfectly elastic behavior. Correctly computing collision impulses is critical for achieving physically accurate simulations. Finally, section 5 describes some of the simulations wehave performed with our simulator, illustrating the speed and accuracy of the approach, and mentions some future work

### Citations

242 | Collision detection and response for computer animation
- Moore, Wilhelms
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h, and mentions some future work. 1.1 Related work Moore and Wilhelms give one of the earliest treatments of two fundamental problems in dynamic simulation: collision detection and collision response =-=[13]-=-. Hahn also pioneered dynamic simulation, modeling sliding and rolling contacts using impact equations [7]. His work is the precursor of our method, although we extend the applicability of impulse dyn... |

199 | Analytical methods for dynamic simulation of non-penetrating rigid bodies - Baraff - 1989 |

171 |
A modeling system based on dynamic constraints
- Barzel, Barr
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ls only with the two-dimensional case [17]. Finally, anumber of researchers have investigated several problems and paradigms for dynamic simulation and physical-based modeling. We refer the reader to =-=[5, 18, 19]-=-. 2 Constraint-based versus impulse-based simulation One of the most di cult aspects of dynamic simulation is dealing with the interactions between bodies in contact. Most of the work which has been d... |

169 | Realistic animation of rigid bodies
- Hahn
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f two fundamental problems in dynamic simulation: collision detection and collision response [13]. Hahn also pioneered dynamic simulation, modeling sliding and rolling contacts using impact equations =-=[7]-=-. His work is the precursor of our method, although we extend the applicability of impulse dynamics to resting contacts, and give a more uni ed treatment ofmultiple objects in contact. Furthermore, th... |

144 | Curved surfaces and coherence for non-penetrating rigid body simulation - Baraff - 1990 |

115 | Efficient Collision Detection For Animation and Robotics
- Lin
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on to be the bottleneck in dynamic simulation [7], and certainly much e ort should be put into streamlining it. The heart of our collision detection system is the Lin-Canny closest features algorithm =-=[12]-=-. This algorithm returns the closest features (vertices, edges, or faces) between a pair of convex polyhedra. It is especially suited to applications like dynamic simulation, where a sequence of queri... |

110 | Fast Animation and Control of Nonrigid Structures
- Witkin, Welch
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ls only with the two-dimensional case [17]. Finally, anumber of researchers have investigated several problems and paradigms for dynamic simulation and physical-based modeling. We refer the reader to =-=[5, 18, 19]-=-. 2 Constraint-based versus impulse-based simulation One of the most di cult aspects of dynamic simulation is dealing with the interactions between bodies in contact. Most of the work which has been d... |

97 | Issues in computing contact forces for nonpenetrating rigid bodies - Baraff - 1993 |

94 | Interactive dynamics
- Witkin, Gleicher, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ls only with the two-dimensional case [17]. Finally, anumber of researchers have investigated several problems and paradigms for dynamic simulation and physical-based modeling. We refer the reader to =-=[5, 18, 19]-=-. 2 Constraint-based versus impulse-based simulation One of the most di cult aspects of dynamic simulation is dealing with the interactions between bodies in contact. Most of the work which has been d... |

85 | Coping with friction for non-penetrating rigid body simulation. Computer Graphics 25(4):31–40 - Baraff - 1991 |

48 |
Point location in fat subdivisions
- Overmars
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The intersections between these n boxes are then found; for cubical boxes, Overmars has given an algorithm for doing this in O(n(1 + log R)) time, where R is the ratio of largest to smallest box size =-=[14]-=-. If two bounding boxes do not intersect, then the corresponding objects will not collide during the next frame, and no distance or time of impact calculations need be performed for that pair of objec... |

34 |
Impact with friction
- Keller
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is still considered the authority on this subject, and is the source cited by most mechanics texts which address it. More recently, Keller gives a slightly di erent treatment of frictional collisions =-=[9]-=-; our approach is quite similar to his. Wang and Mason have studied impact dynamics for robotic applications; their approach is based on Routh's, but deals only with the two-dimensional case [17]. Fin... |

25 |
Modeling impact dynamics for robotic operations
- Wang, Mason
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sions [9]; our approach is quite similar to his. Wang and Mason have studied impact dynamics for robotic applications; their approach is based on Routh's, but deals only with the two-dimensional case =-=[17]-=-. Finally, anumber of researchers have investigated several problems and paradigms for dynamic simulation and physical-based modeling. We refer the reader to [5, 18, 19]. 2 Constraint-based versus imp... |

22 |
The architecture of newton} a general-purpose dynamics simulator
- Cremer, Stewart
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... impact dynamics (e.g. in nite friction at the contact point). Our method combines fast collision detection with a fully general treatment of frictional collisions. Cremer and Stewart describe Newton =-=[6]-=-, probably the most advanced general-purpose dynamic simulator in use today. Newton's forte is the formulation and simulation of constraint-based dynamics for linked rigid bodies. It has been used to ... |

18 |
Curved surfaces and coherence for non-penetrating rigid body simulation
- Bara
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies. It has been used to simulate a 2shigh degree of freedom walking robot [16], although the contact modeling is fairly simplistic. Bara has published a great deal on simulation of bodies in contact =-=[1, 2]-=-. His work focuses on the resolution of forces when bodies are in resting (noncolliding) contact. His earlier work is for frictionless collisions, and he later showed that computing contact forces in ... |

17 |
Analytical methods for dynamic simulation of non-penetrating rigid bodies
- Bara
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies. It has been used to simulate a 2shigh degree of freedom walking robot [16], although the contact modeling is fairly simplistic. Bara has published a great deal on simulation of bodies in contact =-=[1, 2]-=-. His work focuses on the resolution of forces when bodies are in resting (noncolliding) contact. His earlier work is for frictionless collisions, and he later showed that computing contact forces in ... |

15 |
Interference Detection Between Curved Objects for Comp. Animation
- Lin, Manocha
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e can be exploited to achieve a constant expected query time. Non-convex objects can be handled by decomposition into convex pieces, and there is even an extension of the algorithm to curved surfaces =-=[11]-=-. Once the closest features are known, computing the distance between the two objects is a simple operation. The collision detection system reports a possible collision when this distance falls below ... |

14 |
Elementary Rigid Dynamics
- Routh
- 1905
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... showed that computing contact forces in the presence of friction is NP-hard [3]. A summary of his work in this area can be found in [4]. There are few full treatments of frictional collisions. Routh =-=[15]-=- is still considered the authority on this subject, and is the source cited by most mechanics texts which address it. More recently, Keller gives a slightly di erent treatment of frictional collisions... |

11 |
Issues in computing contact forces for non-penetrating rigid bodies", Algorithmica 10
- Bara
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tact. His earlier work is for frictionless collisions, and he later showed that computing contact forces in the presence of friction is NP-hard [3]. A summary of his work in this area can be found in =-=[4]-=-. There are few full treatments of frictional collisions. Routh [15] is still considered the authority on this subject, and is the source cited by most mechanics texts which address it. More recently,... |

7 |
Coping with friction for non-penetrating rigid body simulation
- Bara
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of forces when bodies are in resting (noncolliding) contact. His earlier work is for frictionless collisions, and he later showed that computing contact forces in the presence of friction is NP-hard =-=[3]-=-. A summary of his work in this area can be found in [4]. There are few full treatments of frictional collisions. Routh [15] is still considered the authority on this subject, and is the source cited ... |

5 |
Algorithmic control of walking
- STEWART, CREMER
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ic simulator in use today. Newton's forte is the formulation and simulation of constraint-based dynamics for linked rigid bodies. It has been used to simulate a 2shigh degree of freedom walking robot =-=[16]-=-, although the contact modeling is fairly simplistic. Bara has published a great deal on simulation of bodies in contact [1, 2]. His work focuses on the resolution of forces when bodies are in resting... |

3 |
Electronic prototyping
- Hopcroft
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... such a tool are countless. Electronic prototyping allows the engineer to interactively test and modify designs while they are still on the drawing board, before an actual prototypeisever constructed =-=[8]-=-. Experiments which are too costly or impractical to perform can be simulated, suchas failure mode tests of bridges or dams. Even experiments which are performed today, such as automobile crash tests,... |

3 |
Modelling constraints and the dynamics of a rolling ball on a spinning table
- Lewis, M'Closkey, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ch can become complicated. Moreover, it is not even clear what type of constraint should be applied; there exist at least two models for rolling contact which in some cases predict di erent behaviors =-=[10]-=-. Finally, impacts are not easily incorporated into the constraint model, as they generally give rise to impulses, not constraint forces presentover some interval. These collision impulses must be han... |