## Is Observational Congruence Axiomatisable in Equational Horn Logic?

### BibTeX

@MISC{Mendler_isobservational,

author = {Michael Mendler and Gerald Lüttgen},

title = {Is Observational Congruence Axiomatisable in Equational Horn Logic?},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

It is well known that bisimulation on µ-expressions cannot be finitely axiomatised in equational logic. Complete axiomatisations such as those of Milner and Bloom / Ésik necessarily involve implicational rules. However, both systems rely on features which go beyond pure equational Horn logic: either the rules are impure by involving non-equational side-conditions, or they are schematically infinitary like the congruence rule which is not Horn. It is an open question whether these complications cannot be avoided in the proof-theoretically and computationally clean and powerful setting of second-order equational Horn logic. This paper presents a positive and a negative result regarding axiomatisability of observational congruence in equational Horn logic. Firstly, we show how Milner’s impure rule system can be reworked into a pure Horn axiomatisation that is complete for guarded processes. Secondly, we prove that for unguarded processes, both Milner’s and Bloom / Ésik’s axiomatisations are incomplete without the congruence rule, and neither system has a complete extension in rank 1 equational axioms. It remains open whether there are higher-rank equational axioms or Horn rules which would render Milner’s or Bloom / Ésik’s axiomatisations complete for unguarded processes.