## On criteria for formal theory building: Applying logic and automated reasoning tools to the social sciences (1999)

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Venue: | In Proc. AAAI’99 |

Citations: | 4 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kamps99oncriteria,

author = {Jaap Kamps},

title = {On criteria for formal theory building: Applying logic and automated reasoning tools to the social sciences},

booktitle = {In Proc. AAAI’99},

year = {1999},

pages = {285--290},

publisher = {AAAI Press/The MIT Press}

}

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### Abstract

This paper provides practical operationalizations of criteria for evaluating scientific theories, such as the consistency and falsifiability of theories and the soundness of inferences, that take into account definitions. The precise formulation of these criteria is tailored to the use of automated theorem provers and automated model generators—generic tools from the field of automated reasoning. The use of these criteria is illustrated by applying them to a first order logic representation of a classic organization theory, Thompson’s Organizations in Action.

### Citations

924 |
The Logic of Scientific Discovery
- Popper
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Self-contained or tautological statements are unfalsifiable---their truth does not depend on the empirical assumptions of the theory. Falsifiability is an essential property of scientific theories (=-=Popper 1959-=-). If no state of affairs can falsify a theory, empirical testing can only reassert its trivial validity. A theory is falsifiable if it contains at least one falsifiable theorem. An initial operationa... |

598 |
A Mathematical Introduction to Logic
- Enderton
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ings we prove. We just declare them by fiat. But unlike axioms, we do not expect definitions to add substantive information. A definition is expected to add to our convenience, not to our knowledge. (=-=Enderton 1972-=-, p.154) Copyright c fl1999, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. If dependencies between different concepts are made explicit, we may be able to defin... |

293 | 3.0 Reference Manual and Guide
- Otter
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ning has provided us with automated theorem provers and model generators---generic tools that can directly be used for computational testing of the criteria. Automated theorem provers, such as OTTER (=-=McCune 1994-=-b), are programs that are designed to find proofs of theorems. Typical theorem provers use reductio ad absurdum, that is, the program attempts to derive a contradiction from the premises and the negat... |

191 |
Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory
- Thompson
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...A Formal Theory of Organizations in Action We will illustrate the criteria outlined above by applying them to the formal theory of Organizations in Action (Kamps & Polos 1999), a formal rendition of (=-=Thompson 1967-=-). Thompson (1967) is one of the classic contributions to organization theory: it provides a framework that unifies the perspective treating organizations as closed systems, with the perspective that ... |

95 | A Davis-Putnam program and its application to finite first-order model seach: Quasigroup existence problems
- McCune
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ning has provided us with automated theorem provers and model generators---generic tools that can directly be used for computational testing of the criteria. Automated theorem provers, such as OTTER (=-=McCune 1994-=-b), are programs that are designed to find proofs of theorems. Typical theorem provers use reductio ad absurdum, that is, the program attempts to derive a contradiction from the premises and the negat... |

26 |
Rethinking age dependence in organizational mortality: logical formalizations
- Hannan
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to transcend these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (Peli et al. 1994; Peli & Masuch 1997; Peli 1997; Bruggeman 1997; =-=Hannan 1998-=-; Kamps & Polos 1999). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences are renowned for the richness of their vocabulary (one of the ... |

22 |
The logic of real arguments
- Fisher
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ortant claims and argumentation from other parts of the text, and reconstructing the argumentation. This reconstruction is seldom a straightforward process, although there are some useful guidelines (=-=Fisher 1988-=-). When the theoretical statements are singled-out, they can be formulated in first order logic. The main benefit of the formalization of theories in logic is that it provides clarity by providing an ... |

17 |
The desirability of formalization in science
- Suppes
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... singled-out, they can be formulated in first order logic. The main benefit of the formalization of theories in logic is that it provides clarity by providing an unambiguous exposition of the theory (=-=Suppes 1968-=-). Moreover, the fields of logic and philosophy of science have provided a number of criteria for evaluating formal theories, such as the consistency and falsifiability of theories and the soundness o... |

14 |
The Niche Hiker's Guide to Population Ecology: A logical reconstruction of organization ecology's niche theory
- Peli
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... reasoning tools allows us to transcend these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (Peli et al. 1994; Peli & Masuch 1997; =-=Peli 1997-=-; Bruggeman 1997; Hannan 1998; Kamps & Polos 1999). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences are renowned for the richness of ... |

11 |
A logical approach to formalizing organizational ecology,’’American Sociological Review 59
- Péli, Bruggeman, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cessing. The availability of automated reasoning tools allows us to transcend these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (=-=Peli et al. 1994-=-; Peli & Masuch 1997; Peli 1997; Bruggeman 1997; Hannan 1998; Kamps & Polos 1999). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences ar... |

10 |
The Logic of Propagation Strategies: Axiomatizing a Fragment of Organizational Ecology in First-Order Logic’, Organization Science 8: 310–31
- Péli, Masuch
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ability of automated reasoning tools allows us to transcend these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (Peli et al. 1994; =-=Peli & Masuch 1997-=-; Peli 1997; Bruggeman 1997; Hannan 1998; Kamps & Polos 1999). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences are renowned for the r... |

9 |
Niche Width Theory Reappraised
- Bruggeman
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tools allows us to transcend these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (Peli et al. 1994; Peli & Masuch 1997; Peli 1997; =-=Bruggeman 1997-=-; Hannan 1998; Kamps & Polos 1999). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences are renowned for the richness of their vocabulary... |

7 | Theorem Proving with Definitions
- Giunchiglia, Walsh
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e definitions, dealing with definitions is a difficult challenge for automated reasoning tools. As a result, most automated theorem provers treat definitions and axioms alike (a notable exception is (=-=Giunchiglia & Walsh 1989-=-)). Interestingly, the above argument does not seem to apply to automated model generators. 5 The search space of automated model generators is the set of all possible models, i.e., all possible inter... |

6 | Formal Theory Building Using Automated Reasoning Tools.” Pp. 478–87 in Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning - Kamps - 1998 |

4 | Reducing uncertainty: A formal theory of Organizations in Action
- Kamps, Pólos
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...these limitations. In the social sciences, this has led to renewed interest in the axiomatization of scientific theories (Peli et al. 1994; Peli & Masuch 1997; Peli 1997; Bruggeman 1997; Hannan 1998; =-=Kamps & Polos 1999-=-). These authors present first order logic versions of heretofore non-formal scientific theories. The social sciences are renowned for the richness of their vocabulary (one of the most noticeable diff... |