## Structured document transformations based on XSL (1999)

Venue: | In DBPL |

Citations: | 38 - 12 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Maneth99structureddocument,

author = {Sebastian Maneth and Frank Neven},

title = {Structured document transformations based on XSL},

booktitle = {In DBPL},

year = {1999},

pages = {80--98}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. Based on the recursion mechanism of the XML transformation language XSL, the document transformation language DTL is defined. First the instantiation DTL reg is considered that uses regular expressions as pattern language. This instantiation closely resembles the navigation mechanism of XSL. For DTL reg the complexity of relevant decision problems such as termination of programs, usefulness of rules and equivalence of selection patterns, is addressed. Next, a much more powerful abstraction of XSL is considered that uses monadic second-order logic formulas as pattern language (DTL mso). If DTL mso is restricted to top-down transformations (DTL mso d), then a computational model can be defined which is a natural generalization to unranked trees of topdown tree transducers with look-ahead. The look-ahead can be realized by a straightforward bottom-up pre-processing pass through the document. The size of the output of an XSL program is at most exponential in the size of the input. By restricting copying in XSL a decidable fragment of DTL mso d programs is obtained which induces transformations of linear size increase (safe DTL mso d). It is shown that the emptiness and finiteness problems are decidable for ranges of DTL mso d programs and that the ranges are closed under intersection with generalized Document Type Definitions (DTDs). 1

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Citation Context ...iation of DTL, where we use monadic second-order logic (MSO) formulas as a pattern language. A tree t ∈ TΣ can be viewed naturally as a finite relational structure (in the sense of mathematical logic =-=[7]-=-) over the binary relation symbols {E, <} and the unary relation symbols {Oσ | σ ∈ Σ}. The domain of t, viewed as a structure, is the set of nodes of t. The edge relation E in t is the set of pairs (u... |

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Citation Context ...for any tree t ∈ L(D) and any node v of t: (t, v) ∈ p iff (t, v) ∈ p ′ . If L(D) = TΣ, then p and p ′ are equivalent iff L(u) = L(u ′ ) and L(d) = L(d ′ ). This problem is known to be PSPACE-complete =-=[22]-=-. We show that it remains in PSPACE for arbitrary generalized DTDs. Two binary patterns p and p ′ are equivalent w.r.t. D if for any tree t ∈ L(D) and any nodes v, v ′ of t: (t, v, v ′ ) ∈ p iff (t, v... |

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Citation Context ...roblems are decidable for ranges of DTL mso d programs and that the ranges are closed under intersection with generalized Document Type Definitions (DTDs). 1 Introduction XSL [4,2] is a recursive XML =-=[5,1,23]-=- transformation language and an XSL program can be thought of as an ordered collection of templates. Each template has an associated pattern (selection pattern) and contains a nested set of constructi... |

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Citation Context ... document the transformation process should continue. In this paper we define a document transformation language (DTL) based on the recursion and navigation mechanism embodied in XSL. As is customary =-=[21,16]-=-, we use an abstraction of XML documents that focuses on the document structure and consider a document as a tree. Such a tree is ordered and unranked (consider, e.g., a list-tag: the number of list e... |

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Citation Context ... on closure of extended DTDs under intersection and the fact that inverses of macro tree transducers (working on binary encodings of unranked trees) preserve regular tree languages (Theorem 7.4(1) of =-=[13]-=-). (2) It is well known that unranked forests can be coded by binary trees (see, e.g., [20]). Figure 7 shows the forest t = σ(a1a2(b1b2)a3)δ(a4) and its binary encoding enc(t). Here, the edges are lab... |

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71 |
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Citation Context ...e define a computational model for DTL mso d : the top-down tree transducer with look-ahead. This is a finite state device obtained as the natural generalization of the usual top-down tree transducer =-=[24,8]-=- a b c d e f82 Sebastian Maneth and Frank Neven programs. As in the ranked case the look-ahead used by the transducer can be eliminated by first running a bottom-up relabeling on the input tree. This... |

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Citation Context ...roblems are decidable for ranges of DTL mso d programs and that the ranges are closed under intersection with generalized Document Type Definitions (DTDs). 1 Introduction XSL [4,2] is a recursive XML =-=[5,1,23]-=- transformation language and an XSL program can be thought of as an ordered collection of templates. Each template has an associated pattern (selection pattern) and contains a nested set of constructi... |

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Citation Context ...e define a computational model for DTL mso d : the top-down tree transducer with look-ahead. This is a finite state device obtained as the natural generalization of the usual top-down tree transducer =-=[24,8]-=- a b c d e f82 Sebastian Maneth and Frank Neven programs. As in the ranked case the look-ahead used by the transducer can be eliminated by first running a bottom-up relabeling on the input tree. This... |

46 | Macro tree transducers, attribute grammars, and MSO definable tree translations
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Citation Context ...< a1 ✲ δ γ a4 ✛ encode decode ✲ . nil . nil σ γ ✚ ❩ < ✚ ✚ ❩❩ δ ❭< γ ❭ γ ✧ ✧ ❚ < ✧ ❚ ▲ < ▲ a1 a2 b1 a3 . nil nil . . nil a4 . . nil nil Fig. 7. Binary encoding and decoding of an unranked forest (MTT) =-=[13,10]-=-. The idea is that for every regular language L in the right-hand side of a rule of M the MTT N has a state qL which simulates this language. It must do this on descendants of the form u12 ∗ . Each st... |

39 | Generalized sequential machine maps - Thatcher - 1970 |

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Citation Context ...nd side. Hence, we get a linear size increase. A DTL mso d program for which there exists such a bound k is called safe. In terms of tree transducers this is the natural notion of finite copying (cf. =-=[12]-=-).Structured Document Transformations Based on XSL 97 Consider the DTL mso d program Pcopy discussed in Section 7.2. Clearly Pcopy is safe: it has copying bound 2. The program P of Example 7 is not s... |

29 | Query automata
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Citation Context ...ds or not (here is where the negation comes in). We omit the formal definition of the automaton and the rather involved proof of the next lemma which uses techniques developed by Neven and Schwentick =-=[19]-=-: Lemma 9. Emptiness of 2NTA sr s is EXPTIME-complete. Let P = (Σ, ∆, Q, q0, R, ≺) be a DTL reg program and D a generalized DTD. We say that a node v of a tree t is q-reachable for a state q if there ... |

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Citation Context ...up relabeling phase and then the top-down transformation (without look-ahead). over ranked trees. The basic idea of going from ranked to unranked trees is the one of Brüggemann-Klein, Murata and Wood =-=[3]-=-: replace recursive calls by regular (string) languages of recursive calls. We show that these transducers correspond exactly to DTL mso d programs can in general not be described by (generalized) DTD... |

23 |
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- Pair, Quéré
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ansducers (working on binary encodings of unranked trees) preserve regular tree languages (Theorem 7.4(1) of [13]). (2) It is well known that unranked forests can be coded by binary trees (see, e.g., =-=[20]-=-). Figure 7 shows the forest t = σ(a1a2(b1b2)a3)δ(a4) and its binary encoding enc(t). Here, the edges are labeled for clarity: γ-edges indicate the edges between nodes, while <-edges indicate the orde... |

22 |
The Intrinsically Exponential Complexity of the Circularity Problem for Attribute Grammars
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Citation Context ...eg program terminates on every tree in L(D) is EXPTIME-complete. Sketch of Proof: EXPTIME-hardness is shown by a reduction from the circularity problem of attribute grammars which is EXPTIME-complete =-=[15]-=-. An attribute grammar consists essentially of an underlying context-free grammar G0,Structured Document Transformations Based on XSL 89 q0 ε ✚ ✚ ❩ σ ❩ �� ✚ ✚ ❩ σ ❩ σ σ σ ⇒P,s ⇒ ∗ P,s ⇒ ∗ q0 q0 q0 P,... |

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Citation Context ...on of a state is always nil, we need rules 〈qL, nil〉(y1, y2) → y2. The formal construction is straightforward. Then decidability of emptiness and finiteness follows from Lemma 3.14 and Theorem 4.5 of =-=[6]-=-, respectively. ✷ . nil b2 . nil 7.3 Safe Transformations We now define a dynamic restriction on DTL mso d programs that allows copying but nevertheless induces transformations of only linear size inc... |

15 |
Forest-regular languages and tree-regular languages
- Murata
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Citation Context ... of Document Type Definitions (DTDs), which are modeled by extended context-free grammars, we also use a tree notion. Indeed, we define generalized DTDs as the tree regular grammars defined by Murata =-=[18]-=-. <product> <sales> <domestic> a </domestic> <domestic> b </domestic> <foreign> c </foreign> </sales> <sales> <domestic> d </domestic> <foreign> e </foreign> <foreign> f </foreign> </sales> </product>... |

13 |
Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL
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- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mptiness and finiteness problems are decidable for ranges of DTL mso d programs and that the ranges are closed under intersection with generalized Document Type Definitions (DTDs). 1 Introduction XSL =-=[4,2]-=- is a recursive XML [5,1,23] transformation language and an XSL program can be thought of as an ordered collection of templates. Each template has an associated pattern (selection pattern) and contain... |

9 | View Definition and DTD inference for XML
- Ludäscher, Papakonstantinou, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... document the transformation process should continue. In this paper we define a document transformation language (DTL) based on the recursion and navigation mechanism embodied in XSL. As is customary =-=[21,16]-=-, we use an abstraction of XML documents that focuses on the document structure and consider a document as a tree. Such a tree is ordered and unranked (consider, e.g., a list-tag: the number of list e... |

7 | The generating power of total deterministic tree transducers
- Maneth
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...))) a set of attributes and a set of semantic rules that define the attribute values. We define the generalized DTD D such that it defines all abstract derivation trees of G0 (cf., e.g., Lemma 5.5 in =-=[17]-=-); every node in such a tree is labeled by a production of G0 (plus a ‘sibling’ number). The values of the attributes of a node (as defined by the semantic rules) depend on attributes of the parent an... |

5 |
Passes and paths of attribute grammars
- Engelfriet, File
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e r of a DTL program P is useful w.r.t. D, when there exists a tree t in L(D) such that P uses r at some node of t. A proof of the following proposition is similar to the proof of Theorem 8 (see also =-=[9]-=-). Proposition 10. Given a DTL reg program P and a template rule r of P , deciding whether r is useful w.r.t. D is EXPTIME-complete. A template rule r of a DTL program P is utterly useless when no nod... |

4 |
Undecidable properties of deterministic top-down tree transducers
- Fülöp
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he output of a DTL mso d program can always be restricted to a (generalized) DTD. Similar results are known for ranked topdown tree transducers [24,8]. It follows from Theorem 16 and results of Fülöp =-=[14]-=-, that it is even undecidable whether the output schema of a DTL mso d (or even a DTL reg ) program can be described by a (generalized) DTD. We now exhibit some relevant optimization problems that are... |

2 | Characterizing and deciding MSO-definability of macro tree transductions
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n−1 times, i.e., there is no copying bound for P . We note now, without proof, that safeness of DTL mso d programs is decidable. The proof uses Theorem 18(2) and is similar to the proof of Lemma 3 in =-=[11]-=-. Theorem 19. Safeness of DTL mso d Acknowledgment programs is decidable. We thank Joost Engelfriet and Jan Van den Bussche for many helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. The second au... |

1 |
A proposal for an XSL query language
- Bosworth
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mptiness and finiteness problems are decidable for ranges of DTL mso d programs and that the ranges are closed under intersection with generalized Document Type Definitions (DTDs). 1 Introduction XSL =-=[4,2]-=- is a recursive XML [5,1,23] transformation language and an XSL program can be thought of as an ordered collection of templates. Each template has an associated pattern (selection pattern) and contain... |