## Principles and implementation of deductive parsing (1995)

### Cached

### Download Links

Venue: | JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING |

Citations: | 165 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Shieber95principlesand,

author = {Stuart M. Shieber and Yves Schabes and Fernando C. N. Pereira},

title = {Principles and implementation of deductive parsing},

journal = {JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING},

year = {1995}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We present a system for generating parsers based directly on the metaphor of parsing as deduction. Parsing algorithms can be represented directly as deduction systems, and a single deduction engine can interpret such deduction systems so as to implement the corresponding parser. The method generalizes easily to parsers for augmented phrase structure formalisms, such as definiteclause grammars and other logic grammar formalisms, and has been used for rapid prototyping of parsing algorithms for a variety of formalisms including variants of tree-adjoining grammars, categorial grammars, and lexicalized context-free grammars.

### Citations

653 | An efficient context-free parsing algorithm
- Earley
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd shift-reduce parsing in a way that traditional presentations do not. The summary presentation in Figure 5 may further illuminate the various interrelationships. As we will see, Earley’s algorithm (=-=Earley, 1970-=-) can then be seen as the natural combination of these two algorithms. In recursive-descent parsing, we keep a partial sentential form for the material yet to be parsed, using the dot at the beginning... |

505 | Lexical-Functional Grammar: A formal system for grammatical representation
- Kaplan, Bresnan
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...TR-II (Shieber, 1985a) has Turing-machine power. However, even if constraints are imposed on the context-free backbone of the grammar productions to guarantee decidability, such as o ine parsability (=-=Bresnan and Kaplan, 1982-=-; Pereira and Warren, 1983; Shieber, 1992), the prediction rules for the top-down and Earley systems are problematic. The di culty is that prediction can feed on its own results to build unboundedly l... |

457 |
The mathematics of Sentence Structure
- Lambek
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to prove claims about the grammatical status of a string from assumptions describing the grammatical properties of the string's elements and the linear order between them. Lambek's syntactic calculi (=-=Lambek, 1958-=-) comprise an early formalization of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; Pereira and Warren, 1980; Pereira and War... |

342 |
Definite clause grammars for language analysis - a survey of the formalism and a comparison with augmented transition networks
- Pereira, Warren
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Lambek’s syntactic calculi (Lambek, 1958) comprise an early formalization of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on definite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; =-=Pereira and Warren, 1980-=-; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and technique... |

312 |
Tree Adjunct Grammars
- Joshi, Levy, et al.
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alized composition and coordination) can be easily implemented using such deduction parsing methods. 4.3 Tree-Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms The formalism of tree-adjoining grammars (TAG) (=-=Joshi, Levy, and Takahashi, 1975-=-; Joshi, 1985) is a tree-generating system in which trees are combined by an operation of adjunction rather than the substitution operation of contextfree grammars. 3 The increased expressive power of... |

228 | The Core Language Engine - Alshawi - 1992 |

218 |
Unification revisited
- Lassez, Maher, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of sets of terms defined by equations: if the instances of a term A are a subset of the union of the instances of B and C, then the instances of A must be a subset of the instances of either B or C (=-=Lassez, Maher, and Marriot, 1988-=-).) Thus, the appropriate test is whether an item in the chart subsumes the item to be added. 7 Redundancy in the agenda. We pointed out that redundancy checking in the chart is necessary. The issue o... |

196 |
An amateur’s introduction to recursive query processing strategies
- Bancilhon, Ramakrishnan
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ey) parsing procedures. In this, our method has similarities with the use of pure bottom-up deduction to encode dynamic-programming versions of de nite-clause proof procedures in deductive databases (=-=Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan, 1988-=-; Naughton and Ramakrishnan, 1991). The program that we develop is especially useful for rapid prototyping of and experimentation with new parsing algorithms, and was in fact developed for that purpos... |

153 |
Recognition and parsing of context-free languages in time n 3
- Younger
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... wi · · · wj to be the empty string if i > j. 2.1 A First Example: CYK Parsing As a simple example, the basic mechanism of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami (CYK) context-free parsing algorithm (Kasami, 1965; =-=Younger, 1967-=-) for a context-free grammar in Chomsky normal form can be easily represented as a grammatical deduction system. We assume that we are given a string w = w1 · · · wn to be parsed and a context-free gr... |

138 |
Parsing as deduction
- Pereira, Warren
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...i (Lambek, 1958) comprise an early formalization of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; Pereira and Warren, 1980; =-=Pereira and Warren, 1983-=-) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and techniques to the study of grammar ... |

128 |
Algorithm schemata and data structures in syntactic processing
- Kay
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...possibility, it is standard to maintain a cache of lemmas, adding to the cache only those items that have not been seen so far. The cache plays the same role as the chart in chart-parsing algorithms (=-=Kay, 1986-=-), the well-formed substring table in CYK parsing (Kasami, 1965; Younger, 1967), and the state sets in Earley's algorithm (Earley, 1970). In this section, we develop a forward-chaining deduction proce... |

119 |
Categorial Investigations: Logical and Linguistic Aspects of the Lambek Calculus. Foris
- Moortgat
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sed here have been presented in a natural-deduction format that can be implemented directly by bottom-up execution. However, important parsing logics, in particular the Lambek calculus (Lambek, 1958; =-=Moortgat, 1988-=-), are better presented in a sequent-calculus format. The main reason for this is that those systems use nonatomic formulas that represent concurrent or hypothetical analyses. For instance, if for arb... |

119 | The Structure of Shared Forests in Ambiguous Parsing - Billot, Lang - 1989 |

117 | Magic templates: a spellbinding approach to logic programs
- Ramakrishnan
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocedures. In this, our method has similarities with the use of pure bottom-up deduction to encode dynamic-programming versions of de nite-clause proof procedures in deductive databases (Bancilhon and =-=Ramakrishnan, 1988-=-; Naughton and Ramakrishnan, 1991). The program that we develop is especially useful for rapid prototyping of and experimentation with new parsing algorithms, and was in fact developed for that purpos... |

108 | A study of tree adjoining grammars - Vijay-Shanker - 1987 |

106 | An alternative conception of tree-adjoining derivation
- Shieber, Schabes
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...very much like the context-free operation. Similarly, we do not address other issues such as adjoining constraints and extended derivations. Discussion of those can be found elsewhere (Schabes, 1994; =-=Schabes and Shieber, 1992-=-). MERL-TR-94-08 May 199420 initial tree auxiliary tree derived tree X X X X * X i l j k Figure 10: The operation of adjunction. The auxiliary tree is spliced into the initial tree to yield the deriv... |

101 | Control, relations and logic - Ramakrishnan, Srivastava, et al. - 1992 |

100 | The Linguistic Relevance of Tree Adjoining Grammar
- Kroch, Aravind
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...natural-language phenomena such as long-distance dependencies to be expressed locally in the grammar, that is, within the relevant lexical entries, rather than by many specialized context-free rules (=-=Kroch and Joshi, 1985-=-). A tree-adjoining grammar consists of a set of elementary trees of two types: initial trees and auxiliary trees. An initial tree is complete in the sense that its frontier includes only terminal sym... |

97 |
How much context sensitivity is necessary for characterizing structural descriptions: Tree adjoining grammars
- Joshi
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n) can be easily implemented using such deduction parsing methods. 4.3 Tree-Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms The formalism of tree-adjoining grammars (TAG) (Joshi, Levy, and Takahashi, 1975; =-=Joshi, 1985-=-) is a tree-generating system in which trees are combined by an operation of adjunction rather than the substitution operation of contextfree grammars. 3 The increased expressive power of adjunction a... |

89 |
An Efficient Recognition and Syntax Algorithm for Context-Free Languages,” Scientific Report AFCRL-65-758, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory
- Kasami
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s is usual, we take wi 111wj to be the empty string if i>j. 2.1 A First Example: CYK Parsing As a simple example, the basic mechanism of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami (CYK) context-free parsing algorithm (=-=Kasami, 1965-=-; Younger, 1967) for a context-free grammar in Chomsky normal form can be easily represented as a grammatical deduction system. We assume that we are given a string w = w1 111wn to be parsed and a con... |

84 | Using restriction to extend parsing algorithms for complex-feature-based formalisms
- Shieber
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es termination problems in proof construction that did not arise in the context-free case. In the general case, this is inevitable, because a formalism like DCG (Pereira and Warren, 1980) or PATR-II (=-=Shieber, 1985-=-a) has Turing-machine power. However, even if constraints are imposed on the context-free backbone of the grammar productions to guarantee decidability, such as o ine parsability (Bresnan and Kaplan, ... |

81 | Deterministic techniques for efficient non-deterministic parsers - Lang - 1974 |

77 | Tree insertion grammar: A cubic-time parsable formalism that lexicalizes context-free grammar without changing the trees produced. Technical report, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories - Schabes, Waters - 1994 |

76 | On the Order of Words - Ades, Steedman - 1982 |

56 |
Recognition and parsing of context-free languages
- Younger
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... take wi 111wj to be the empty string if i>j. 2.1 A First Example: CYK Parsing As a simple example, the basic mechanism of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami (CYK) context-free parsing algorithm (Kasami, 1965; =-=Younger, 1967-=-) for a context-free grammar in Chomsky normal form can be easily represented as a grammatical deduction system. We assume that we are given a string w = w1 111wn to be parsed and a context-free gramm... |

55 | Parsing Some Constrained Grammar Formalisms - Vijay-Shanker, Weir - 1993 |

50 |
Constraint-Based Grammar Formalisms
- Shieber
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; Pereira and Warren, 1980; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (=-=Shieber, 1992-=-; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and techniques to the study of grammar formalisms and parsing: 1. Existing lo... |

42 | Efficient Bottom-up Evaluation of Logic Programs
- Ramakrishnan, Srivastava, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ur method has similarities with the use of pure bottom-up deduction to encode dynamic-programming versions of de nite-clause proof procedures in deductive databases (Bancilhon and Ramakrishnan, 1988; =-=Naughton and Ramakrishnan, 1991-=-). The program that we develop is especially useful for rapid prototyping of and experimentation with new parsing algorithms, and was in fact developed for that purpose. We have used it, for instance,... |

41 | Stochastic Lexicalized ContextFree Grammar
- Schabes, Waters
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xt-free grammar and the elegance and lexical sensitivity of tree-adjoining grammar. The deductive parsing meta-interpreter has also been used for rapid prototyping of an Earley-style parser for LCFG (=-=Schabes and Waters, 1993-=-b). MERL-TR-94-08 May 199426 4.4 Inadequacy for Sequent Calculi All the parsing logics discussed here have been presented in a natural-deduction format that can be implemented directly by bottom-up e... |

38 |
Metamorphosis grammars
- Colmerauer
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rder between them. Lambek's syntactic calculi (Lambek, 1958) comprise an early formalization of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (=-=Colmerauer, 1978-=-; Pereira and Warren, 1980; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources... |

35 |
On the Order of Words. Linguistics and Philosophy
- Ades, Steedman
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... erent ways are never identical. Appropriate methods of implementation that circumvent this problem are discussed in Section 5.4. 4.2 Combinatory Categorial Grammars A combinatory categorial grammar (=-=Ades and Steedman, 1982-=-) consists of two parts: (1) a lexicon that maps words to sets of categories; (2) rules for combining categories into other categories. Categories are built from atomic categories and two binary opera... |

27 | Specifying Filler-Gap Dependency Parsers in a Linear-Logic Programming Language
- Hodas
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the problem of pure bottom-up parsing with grammars with gaps. In fact, a natural logical formulation of gaps is as assumptions discharged by the wh-phrase they stand for (Pareschi and Miller, 1990; =-=Hodas, 1992-=-). (3) 26instance, presents a compilation of Lambek calculus to a CFG, which can then be processed by any of the standard methods. However, it is not clear yet that such techniques can be applied eff... |

27 | Lambek grammars are context free - Pentus - 1993 |

25 | Extending definite clause grammars with scoping constructs
- Pareschi, Miller
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty between this problem and the problem of pure bottom-up parsing with grammars with gaps. In fact, a natural logical formulation of gaps is as assumptions discharged by the wh-phrase they stand for (=-=Pareschi and Miller, 1990-=-; Hodas, 1992). (3) 26instance, presents a compilation of Lambek calculus to a CFG, which can then be processed by any of the standard methods. However, it is not clear yet that such techniques can b... |

24 |
Enumeration of success patterns in logic programs
- Sato, Tamaki
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ever generated. A similar notion for general constraint grammars is called restriction (Shieber, 1985b; Shieber, 1992), and a related technique has been used in partial evaluation of logic programs (=-=Sato and Tamaki, 1984-=-). The problem with the DCG above can be seen as following from the computation of derivation-speci c information in the arguments to the nonterminals. However, applications frequently require constru... |

19 |
The Logic of Typed Feature Structures. Number 32
- Carpenter
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; Pereira and Warren, 1980; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; =-=Carpenter, 1992-=-). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and techniques to the study of grammar formalisms and parsing: 1. Existing logics can be used as a basis for new grammar forma... |

17 |
A logical version of functional grammar
- Rounds, ManasterRamer
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ich more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on definite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; Pereira and Warren, 1980; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; =-=Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987-=-; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and techniques to the study of grammar formalisms and parsing: 1. Existing logics can be used as a basis for ... |

14 |
Left to right parsing of lexicalized treeadjoining grammars
- Schabes
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...we describe is very much like the context-free operation. Similarly, we do not address other issues such as adjoining constraints and extended derivations. Discussion of those can be found elsewhere (=-=Schabes, 1994-=-; Schabes and Shieber, 1992). MERL-TR-94-08 May 199420 initial tree auxiliary tree derived tree X X X X * X i l j k Figure 10: The operation of adjunction. The auxiliary tree is spliced into the init... |

14 |
De nite clause grammars for language analysis
- Pereira, Warren
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Lambek's syntactic calculi (Lambek, 1958) comprise an early formalization of this idea, which more recently was explored in relation to grammar formalisms based on de nite clauses (Colmerauer, 1978; =-=Pereira and Warren, 1980-=-; Pereira and Warren, 1983) and on feature logics (Shieber, 1992; Rounds and ManasterRamer, 1987; Carpenter, 1992). The view of parsing as deduction adds two main new sources of insights and technique... |

10 | XTAG -- A Graphical Workbench for Developing Tree-Adjoining Grammars
- Paroubek, YvesJoshi
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... case, and also to the CYK TAG parser. A parsing system based on this algorithm is currently being used in the development of a large English tree-adjoining grammar at the University of Pennsylvania (=-=Paroubek, Schabes, and Joshi, 1992-=-). Many other formalisms related to tree-adjoining grammars have been proposed, and the deductive parsing approach is applicable to these as well. For instance, as part of an investigation of the prec... |

7 | Lexicalized context-free grammar: A cubic-time parsable formalism that strongly lexicalizes context-free grammar
- Schabes, Waters
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xt-free grammar and the elegance and lexical sensitivity of tree-adjoining grammar. The deductive parsing meta-interpreter has also been used for rapid prototyping of an Earley-style parser for LCFG (=-=Schabes and Waters, 1993-=-b). MERL-TR-94-08 May 199426 4.4 Inadequacy for Sequent Calculi All the parsing logics discussed here have been presented in a natural-deduction format that can be implemented directly by bottom-up e... |

7 | and Raghu Ramakrishnan. Bottom-up evaluation of logic programs - Naughton - 1991 |

6 |
Criteria for designing computer facilities for linguistic analysis
- Shieber
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es termination problems in proof construction that did not arise in the context-free case. In the general case, this is inevitable, because a formalism like DCG (Pereira and Warren, 1980) or PATR-II (=-=Shieber, 1985-=-a) has Turing-machine power. However, even if constraints are imposed on the context-free backbone of the grammar productions to guarantee decidability, such as o ine parsability (Bresnan and Kaplan, ... |

2 |
Specifying ller-gap dependency parsers in a linear-logic programming language
- Hodas
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the problem of pure bottom-up parsing with grammars with gaps. In fact, a natural logical formulation of gaps is as assumptions discharged by the wh-phrase they stand for (Pareschi and Miller, 1990; =-=Hodas, 1992-=-). MERL-TR-94-08 May 199427 instance, presents a compilation of Lambek calculus to a CFG, which can then be processed by any of the standard methods. However, it is not clear yet that such techniques... |

1 | appeared as "Les Grammaires de Metamorphose", Groupe d'Intelligence Artificielle, Universit'e de - First - 1975 |

1 | h input.pli A.2 Deduction Engine Driver The main driver operates as per the discussion in Section 5. h driver.pli /*---------------------------------------------------------- INFERENCE ENGINE ----------------------------------------------------------*/ ME - encodewords |

1 | SideConds) %%% ========================================================== %%% %%% Find an inference rule RuleName with antecedent of %%% the form U @ [Trigger] @ V, where Others is U @ V, %%% Consequent is the consequent of the rule and %%% SideConds are - call - 1994 |

1 | Predicate used to store an auxiliary indexing table %%% for indexing stored items. The predicate %%% itemtokey/2 is used to compute the key for an %%% item. :- dynamic keyindex/2. %%% itemstored(+Item, -Index) %%% ========================== %%% %%% Finds - keyindex - 1994 |

1 | Specifies an inference rule named RuleName with %%% Antecedent items, a Consequent item, and some %%% SideConditions. The following predicate is used to define appropriate indexing of the items - inference - 1994 |

1 | D2) ], % ------------------------------------- item(X,I,K,[D1, D2]), % where MERL-TR-94-08 May 1994 [] ). %%%......................................................... %%% BACKWARD APPLICATION: inference( backward-application, [ item(Y - inference, item |