## MATHEMATICS TEACHERS ’ INTERPRETATION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING IN BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

Citations: | 1 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Thompson_mathematicsteachers,

author = {Tony Thompson},

title = {MATHEMATICS TEACHERS ’ INTERPRETATION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING IN BLOOM’S TAXONOMY},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

ABSTRACT. This study investigated mathematics teachers ’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a) define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b) identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c) create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy and creating test items for higher-order thinking. Alternatives to using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help mathematics teachers assess for higher-order thinking are discussed.

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Citation Context ...of teaching mathematics stands in contrast to teaching for higher-order thinking skills where students are able to meaningfully apply methods and concepts to situations previously unfamiliar to them (=-=Donovan & Bransford, 2005-=-; Hiebert, et al, 1997). However, research indicates that many teachers have a weak conception of higher-order thinking (Harpster, 1999) and that teaching for higher-order thinking is difficult for te... |

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Citation Context ... of this inconsistency (Black & Wiliam, 1998). Any endeavor to improve assessing for HOT depends on whether or not teachers can identify and create items that assess for HOT (Costa, 2001; Kulm, 1990; =-=Resnick & Resnick, 1992-=-). Numerous efforts to improve assessing for HOT include Bloom’s Taxonomy which is often used to evaluate the level thinking required on tasks. How is HOT characterized in Bloom’s Taxonomy? Bloom’s Ta... |

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Citation Context ...T, for a test item to be at the level of application or higher, a “new situation” (to the student) is required. Bloom emphasized in his original work in 1956 and subsequent discussions on this issue (=-=Bloom et al, 1971-=-, 1981) that application and higher levels in the taxonomy do not refer to test items where only minor changes are made, but otherwise, the procedure was the same to that practiced in class. As Bloom,... |

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Citation Context ...nds in contrast to teaching for higher-order thinking skills where students are able to meaningfully apply methods and concepts to situations previously unfamiliar to them (Donovan & Bransford, 2005; =-=Hiebert, et al, 1997-=-). However, research indicates that many teachers have a weak conception of higher-order thinking (Harpster, 1999) and that teaching for higher-order thinking is difficult for teachers to sustain as a... |

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Citation Context ...weak conception of higher-order thinking (Harpster, 1999) and that teaching for higher-order thinking is difficult for teachers to sustain as an integral part of classroom instruction and assessment (=-=Henningsen & Stein, 1997-=-). Characterizing Lower- and Higher-Order Thinking Resnick (1987) noted that thinking skills resist precise forms of definition, but lower- and higher-order thinking can be recognized when each occurs... |

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Citation Context ...eachers are often unaware of this inconsistency (Black & Wiliam, 1998). Any endeavor to improve assessing for HOT depends on whether or not teachers can identify and create items that assess for HOT (=-=Costa, 2001-=-; Kulm, 1990; Resnick & Resnick, 1992). Numerous efforts to improve assessing for HOT include Bloom’s Taxonomy which is often used to evaluate the level thinking required on tasks. How is HOT characte... |

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Citation Context ...a task that assessed LOT. In general, teacher assessments tend to focus on LOT even when teachers say they want to teach and assess for HOT; however, teachers are often unaware of this inconsistency (=-=Black & Wiliam, 1998-=-). Any endeavor to improve assessing for HOT depends on whether or not teachers can identify and create items that assess for HOT (Costa, 2001; Kulm, 1990; Resnick & Resnick, 1992). Numerous efforts t... |

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Citation Context ...hematics teaching in the U.S. has traditionally relied on factual recall and a focus on the use of standardized algorithms with little effort to teach or assess for higher-order thinking (Kulm, 1990; =-=Battista, 1994-=-). As a result, students generally learn mathematics without being able to use their knowledge to solve problems in diverse or non-familiar situations (de Lange, 1987; Schoenfeld, 1988). Although ther... |

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Citation Context ...7) to determine whether test items were HOT or LOT. In these studies, teachers were not using BT as a guide in the development of their own HOT test items (e.g., Stiggins, Griswold, & Wikelund, 1989; =-=Fleming & Chambers, 1983-=-; Harpster, 1999). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the following questions: 1. How do high school mathematics teachers define lower- and higher-order thinking? 2. Which thinking skil... |

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Citation Context ...eated. In this study, BT did not appear to affect teachers’ perception of HOT or their efforts to write HOT test items for their students. Although BT can be used effectively by mathematics teachers (=-=Kastberg, 2003-=-; Vidakovic, Bevis, & Alexander, 2003), the study lends support that BT might not be an effective method of helping mathematics teachers assess for HOT. One alternative is to use a modified version of... |

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Citation Context ...aracterized in Bloom’s Taxonomy? Bloom’s Taxonomy and higher-order thinking For over 50 years, Bloom’s Taxonomy (BT) (Bloom, 1956) has heavily influenced teaching and assessment throughout the world (=-=Anderson & Sosniak, 1994-=-) and is still commonly used in mathematics education. For example, Kastberg (2003) and Vidakovic, Bevis, & Alexander (2003) provide examples of how high school and collegiate mathematics teachers can... |

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Citation Context ...hich is often used to evaluate the level thinking required on tasks. How is HOT characterized in Bloom’s Taxonomy? Bloom’s Taxonomy and higher-order thinking For over 50 years, Bloom’s Taxonomy (BT) (=-=Bloom, 1956-=-) has heavily influenced teaching and assessment throughout the world (Anderson & Sosniak, 1994) and is still commonly used in mathematics education. For example, Kastberg (2003) and Vidakovic, Bevis,... |

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Citation Context ...concepts to situations previously unfamiliar to them (Donovan & Bransford, 2005; Hiebert, et al, 1997). However, research indicates that many teachers have a weak conception of higher-order thinking (=-=Harpster, 1999-=-) and that teaching for higher-order thinking is difficult for teachers to sustain as an integral part of classroom instruction and assessment (Henningsen & Stein, 1997). Characterizing Lower- and Hig... |

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Citation Context ...other frameworks (e.g., Quellmalz, 1987) to determine whether test items were HOT or LOT. In these studies, teachers were not using BT as a guide in the development of their own HOT test items (e.g., =-=Stiggins, Griswold, & Wikelund, 1989-=-; Fleming & Chambers, 1983; Harpster, 1999). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the following questions: 1. How do high school mathematics teachers define lower- and higher-order thinki... |

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Citation Context ...tudy, BT did not appear to affect teachers’ perception of HOT or their efforts to write HOT test items for their students. Although BT can be used effectively by mathematics teachers (Kastberg, 2003; =-=Vidakovic, Bevis, & Alexander, 2003-=-), the study lends support that BT might not be an effective method of helping mathematics teachers assess for HOT. One alternative is to use a modified version of BT specifically developed for mathem... |

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Citation Context ...atics. RESEARCH QUESTIONS As discussed above, teachers’ test items have been investigated regarding whether they assess for LOT or HOT; however, researchers used BT or variations of BT (Cooney, 1992; =-=Wilson, 1971-=-), or other frameworks (e.g., Quellmalz, 1987) to determine whether test items were HOT or LOT. In these studies, teachers were not using BT as a guide in the development of their own HOT test items (... |

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Citation Context ...tems in mathematics. RESEARCH QUESTIONS As discussed above, teachers’ test items have been investigated regarding whether they assess for LOT or HOT; however, researchers used BT or variations of BT (=-=Cooney, 1992-=-; Wilson, 1971), or other frameworks (e.g., Quellmalz, 1987) to determine whether test items were HOT or LOT. In these studies, teachers were not using BT as a guide in the development of their own HO... |

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Citation Context ...ODUCTION Mathematics teaching in the U.S. has traditionally relied on factual recall and a focus on the use of standardized algorithms with little effort to teach or assess for higher-order thinking (=-=Kulm, 1990-=-; Battista, 1994). As a result, students generally learn mathematics without being able to use their knowledge to solve problems in diverse or non-familiar situations (de Lange, 1987; Schoenfeld, 1988... |

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