## Appearance-preserving simplification (1998)

Venue: | IN PROC. SIGGRAPH’98 |

Citations: | 131 - 9 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Cohen98appearance-preservingsimplification,

author = {Jonathan Cohen and Marc Olano and Dinesh Manocha},

title = {Appearance-preserving simplification},

booktitle = {IN PROC. SIGGRAPH’98},

year = {1998},

pages = {115--122},

publisher = {}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We present a new algorithm for appearance-preserving simplification. Not only does it generate a low-polygon-count approximation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curvature, and color attributes of the input surface. We convert the input surface to a representation that decouples the sampling of these three attributes, storing the colors and normals in texture and normal maps, respectively. Our simplification algorithm employs a new texture deviation metric, which guarantees that these maps shift by no more than a user-specified number of pixels on the screen. The simplification process filters the surface position, while the runtime system filters the colors and normals on a per-pixel basis. We have applied our simplification technique to several large models achieving significant amounts of simplification with little or no loss in rendering quality.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...thms include decimation techniques based on vertex removal [4], topology modification [13], and controlled simplification of genus [14]. All of these algorithms compute static levels-of-detail. Hoppe =-=[15]-=- has introduced an incremental representation, called the progressive mesh, and based on that representation view-dependent algorithms have been proposed by [16, 17]. These algorithms use different vi... |

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Citation Context ...[2, 3] are applicable to all polygonal models and do not preserve the topology of the original models. Other algorithms assume that the input model is a valid mesh. Algorithms based on vertex removal =-=[4, 5]-=- and local error metrics have been proposed by [6-10]. Cohen et al. [11] and Eck et al. [12] have presented algorithms that preserve topology and use a global error bound. Our appearance-preserving si... |

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Citation Context ...[2, 3] are applicable to all polygonal models and do not preserve the topology of the original models. Other algorithms assume that the input model is a valid mesh. Algorithms based on vertex removal =-=[4, 5]-=- and local error metrics have been proposed by [6-10]. Cohen et al. [11] and Eck et al. [12] have presented algorithms that preserve topology and use a global error bound. Our appearance-preserving si... |

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Citation Context ...compute static levels-of-detail. Hoppe [15] has introduced an incremental representation, called the progressive mesh, and based on that representation view-dependent algorithms have been proposed by =-=[16, 17]-=-. These algorithms use different viewdependent criteria like local illumination, screen-space surface approximation error, and silhouette edges to adaptively refine the meshes. Our appearance preservi... |

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Citation Context ... maps that contain something other than surface color. Displacement maps [23] contain perturbations of the surface position. They are typically used to add surface detail to a simple model. Bump maps =-=[24]-=- are similar, but instead give perturbations of the surface normal. They can make a smooth surface appear bumpy, but will not change the surface’s silhouette. Normal maps [25] can also make a smooth s... |

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Citation Context ...g. Graph Drawing: The field of graph drawing addresses the issue of one-to-one mappings more rigorously. Relevant topics include straight-line drawings on a grid [40] and convex straightline drawings =-=[41]-=-. Battista et al. [42] present a survey of the field. These techniques produce guaranteed one-to-one mappings, but the necessary grids for a graph with V vertices are worst case (and typically) O(V) w... |

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Citation Context ...compute static levels-of-detail. Hoppe [15] has introduced an incremental representation, called the progressive mesh, and based on that representation view-dependent algorithms have been proposed by =-=[16, 17]-=-. These algorithms use different viewdependent criteria like local illumination, screen-space surface approximation error, and silhouette edges to adaptively refine the meshes. Our appearance preservi... |

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Citation Context ...f the texture deviation algorithm is to compute v gen, the 2D texture coordinates of this generated vertex. For v gen to be valid, it must lie in the convex kernel of our polygon in the texture plane =-=[43]-=- (see Figure 7). Meeting this criterion ensures that the set of triangles after the edge collapse covers exactly the same portion of the texture plane as the set of triangles before the collapse. Give... |

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Citation Context ...nd similar surface shading techniques on graphics systems in the near future [26]. In fact, many of these mapping techniques are already possible using the procedural shading capabilities of PixelFlow=-=[27]-=-. Several researchers have explored the possibility of replacing geometric information with texture. Kajiya first introduced the "hierarchy of scale" of geometric models, mapping, and lighting[28]. Ca... |

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Citation Context ...al et. al. [29] addressed the transition between bump mapping and lighting effects. Westin et. al. [30] generated BRDFs from a Monte-Carlo ray tracing of an idealized piece of surface. Becker and Max =-=[31]-=- handle transitions from geometric detail in the form of displacement maps to shading in the form of bump maps. Fournier [25] generates maps with normal and shading information directly from surface g... |

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Citation Context ...e meshes. Our appearance preserving simplification algorithm generates a progressive mesh, which can be used by these viewdependent algorithms. 2.2 Preserving Appearance Attributes Bajaj and Schikore =-=[18]-=- have presented an algorithm to simplify meshes with associated scalar fields to within a given tolerance. Hughes et al. [19] have presented an algorithm to simplify radiositized meshes. Erikson and M... |

50 |
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Citation Context ... simple model. Bump maps [24] are similar, but instead give perturbations of the surface normal. They can make a smooth surface appear bumpy, but will not change the surface’s silhouette. Normal maps =-=[25]-=- can also make a smooth surface appear bumpy, but contain the actual normal instead of just a perturbation of the normal. Texture mapping is available in most current graphics systems, including works... |

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Citation Context ...Texture deviation is a measure of the parametric distortion caused by the simplification process. We measure this deviation using a method similar to the one presented to measure surface deviation in =-=[8]-=-. The main difference is that we now measure the deviation using our mapping in the texture plane, rather than in the plane of some planar projection. While [8] presents an overview of this technique,... |

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Citation Context ...field of graph drawing addresses the issue of one-to-one mappings more rigorously. Relevant topics include straight-line drawings on a grid [40] and convex straightline drawings [41]. Battista et al. =-=[42]-=- present a survey of the field. These techniques produce guaranteed one-to-one mappings, but the necessary grids for a graph with V vertices are worst case (and typically) O(V) width and height, and t... |

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Citation Context ...rithm can be combined with many of these. Other simplification algorithms include decimation techniques based on vertex removal [4], topology modification [13], and controlled simplification of genus =-=[14]-=-. All of these algorithms compute static levels-of-detail. Hoppe [15] has introduced an incremental representation, called the progressive mesh, and based on that representation view-dependent algorit... |

34 |
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Citation Context ...f-detail. These methods differ according to the local or global error metrics used for simplification and the underlying data structures or representations. Some approaches based on vertex clustering =-=[2, 3]-=- are applicable to all polygonal models and do not preserve the topology of the original models. Other algorithms assume that the input model is a valid mesh. Algorithms based on vertex removal [4, 5]... |

29 |
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Citation Context ...ed combination of the two error metrics, the maximum or minimum of the error metrics, or one of the two error metrics taken alone. For instance, when integrating with Garland and Heckbert’s algorithm =-=[6]-=-, it would be desirable to take a weighted combination in order to retain the precedence their system accords the topology-preserving collapses over the topology-modifying collapses. Similarly, a weig... |

14 |
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Citation Context ...meshes. Erikson and Manocha[20] grow error volumes for appearance attributes as well as geometry. Many algorithms based on multi-resolution analysis have been proposed as well. Schroeder and Sweldens =-=[21]-=- have presented algorithms for simplifying functions defined over a sphere. Eck et al. [12] apply multi-resolution analysis to simplify arbitrary meshes, and Certain et al. [22] extend this to colored... |

12 |
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Citation Context ...ing literature. Computer Graphics: In the recent computer graphics literature, [12, 37, 38] use a spring system with various energy terms to distribute the vertices of a polygonal patch in the plane. =-=[12, 32, 38, 39]-=- provide methods for subdividing surfaces into separate patches based on automatic criteria or user-guidance. This body of research addresses the above properties one and two, but unfortunately, param... |

11 | Simplification Culling of Static and Dynamic Scene Graphs
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Citation Context ...presented an algorithm to simplify meshes with associated scalar fields to within a given tolerance. Hughes et al. [19] have presented an algorithm to simplify radiositized meshes. Erikson and Manocha=-=[20]-=- grow error volumes for appearance attributes as well as geometry. Many algorithms based on multi-resolution analysis have been proposed as well. Schroeder and Sweldens [21] have presented algorithms ... |

9 |
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Citation Context ...endent algorithms. 2.2 Preserving Appearance Attributes Bajaj and Schikore [18] have presented an algorithm to simplify meshes with associated scalar fields to within a given tolerance. Hughes et al. =-=[19]-=- have presented an algorithm to simplify radiositized meshes. Erikson and Manocha[20] grow error volumes for appearance attributes as well as geometry. Many algorithms based on multi-resolution analys... |

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Citation Context ...Kajiya first introduced the "hierarchy of scale" of geometric models, mapping, and lighting[28]. Cabral et. al. [29] addressed the transition between bump mapping and lighting effects. Westin et. al. =-=[30]-=- generated BRDFs from a Monte-Carlo ray tracing of an idealized piece of surface. Becker and Max [31] handle transitions from geometric detail in the form of displacement maps to shading in the form o... |

6 |
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Citation Context ...om: per-vertex normalsPhong lighting model to compute the output color of each pixel. The current implementation looks up normals with 8 bits per component, which seems sufficient in practice (using =-=[44]-=-) 8 ONGOING WORK AND CONCLUSIONS There are several directions to pursue to improve our system for appearance-preserving simplification. We would like to experiment more with techniques to generate par... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...f-detail. These methods differ according to the local or global error metrics used for simplification and the underlying data structures or representations. Some approaches based on vertex clustering =-=[2, 3]-=- are applicable to all polygonal models and do not preserve the topology of the original models. Other algorithms assume that the input model is a valid mesh. Algorithms based on vertex removal [4, 5]... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...c detail in the form of displacement maps to shading in the form of bump maps. Fournier [25] generates maps with normal and shading information directly from surface geometry. Krishnamurthy and Levoy =-=[32]-=- fit complex, scanned surfaces with a set of smooth Bspline patches, then store some of the lost geometric information in a displacement map or bump map. Many algorithms first capture the geometric co... |