## Multi-camera Scene Reconstruction via Graph Cuts (2002)

### Cached

### Download Links

Venue: | in European Conference on Computer Vision |

Citations: | 267 - 10 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kolmogorov02multi-camerascene,

author = {Vladimir Kolmogorov and Ramin Zabih},

title = {Multi-camera Scene Reconstruction via Graph Cuts},

booktitle = {in European Conference on Computer Vision},

year = {2002},

pages = {82--96}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We address the problem of computing the 3-dimensional shape of an arbitrary scene from a set of images taken at known viewpoints.

### Citations

3990 |
Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions and the Bayesian restoration of images
- Geman, Geman
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wn that stereo, like many problems in early vision, can be elegantly stated in terms of energy minimization [19]. The energy minimization problem has traditionally been solved via simulated annealing =-=[2, 11]-=-, which is well known to be extremely slow in practice. In the last few years powerful energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts [6, 7, 12, 14, 21]. Unlike simulated annea... |

1506 |
Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
- Ahuja, Magnanti, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be solved very e#ciently by computing the maximum flow between the terminals, according to a theorem due to Ford and Fulkerson [10]. There are a large number of fast algorithms for this problem (see =-=[1]-=-, for example). The worst case complexity is low-order polynomial; however, in practice the running time is nearly linear for graphs with many short paths between the source and the sink, such as the ... |

1474 | Fast approximate energy minimization via graph cuts
- Boykov, Veksler, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nerally viewed as too slow for early vision to be practical. Our approach is motivated by some recent work in stereo, where fast energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts =-=[6, 7, 12, 14, 20, 21]-=-. These methods give strong experimental results in practice; for example, two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms (using real imagery with ground truth) found that a graph cut method gave the bes... |

1116 | A Taxonomy and Evaluation of Dense Two-Frame Stereo Correspondence Algorithms
- Scharstein, Szeliski
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...trong experimental results in practice; for example, two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms (using real imagery with ground truth) found that a graph cut method gave the best overall performance =-=[22, 27]-=-. The energy that we minimize has three important properties: . it treats the input images symmetrically, . it handles visibility properly, and . it imposes spatial smoothness while also preserving di... |

860 | An experimental comparison of mincut/max-flow algorithms for energy minimization in vision
- Boykov, Kolmogorov
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...below show image dimensions and running times obtained on 450MHz UltraSPARC II processor. The max flow implementation we used is one specifically designed for the kinds of graphs that arise in vision =-=[5]-=-. dataset number of number of image number of running images interactions size labels time Tsukuba 5 4 384 x 288 16 369 secs Tsukuba 5 10 384 x 288 16 837 secs Flower garden 8 7 352 x 240 16 693 secs ... |

816 |
Flows in networks
- Ford, Fulkerson
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... cut problem is to find the cut with the smallest cost. This problem can be solved very e#ciently by computing the maximum flow between the terminals, according to a theorem due to Ford and Fulkerson =-=[10]-=-. There are a large number of fast algorithms for this problem (see [1], for example). The worst case complexity is low-order polynomial; however, in practice the running time is nearly linear for gra... |

742 | What energy functions can be minimized via graph cuts
- Kolmogorov, Zabin
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...order polynomial; however, in practice the running time is nearly linear for graphs with many short paths between the source and the sink, such as the one we will construct. We will use a result from =-=[15]-=- which says that for energy functions of binary variables of the form E(x 1 , . . . , x n ) = # i E i,j (x i , x j ) (1) it is possible to construct a graph for minimizing it if and only if each term ... |

478 | A theroy of shape by space carving
- Kutulakos, Seitz
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... di#erent cameras. This constraint, called photoconsistency, is obviously quite powerful. Two well-known recent algorithms 2 that have used photo-consistency are voxel coloring [23] and space carving =-=[16]-=-. Voxel coloring makes a single pass through voxel space, first computing the visibility of each voxel and then its color. There are some constraints on the camera geometry, namely that no scene point... |

406 | Photorealistic scene reconstruction by voxel coloring
- Seitz, Dyer
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a scene element between di#erent cameras. This constraint, called photoconsistency, is obviously quite powerful. Two well-known recent algorithms 2 that have used photo-consistency are voxel coloring =-=[23]-=- and space carving [16]. Voxel coloring makes a single pass through voxel space, first computing the visibility of each voxel and then its color. There are some constraints on the camera geometry, nam... |

405 |
The visual hull concept for silhouette-based image understanding
- Laurentini
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e object placed on a turntable [8]. It is known that the output of silhouette intersection even without noise is not the actual 3-dimensional shape, but rather an approximation called the visual hull =-=[17]-=-. 2.1 Voxel coloring and space carving Voxel occupancy, however, fails to exploit the consistent appearance of a scene element between di#erent cameras. This constraint, called photoconsistency, is ob... |

294 | Computing visual correspondence with occlusions using graph cuts
- Kolmogorov, Zabih
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nerally viewed as too slow for early vision to be practical. Our approach is motivated by some recent work in stereo, where fast energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts =-=[6, 7, 12, 14, 20, 21]-=-. These methods give strong experimental results in practice; for example, two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms (using real imagery with ground truth) found that a graph cut method gave the bes... |

251 |
Computational vision and regularization theory
- Poggio, Torre, et al.
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e recently developed techniques that give strong results for stereo matching. It is well known that stereo, like many problems in early vision, can be elegantly stated in terms of energy minimization =-=[19]-=-. The energy minimization problem has traditionally been solved via simulated annealing [2, 11], which is well known to be extremely slow in practice. In the last few years powerful energy minimizatio... |

239 | A maximum-flow formulation of the n-camera stereo correspondence problem
- Roy, Cox
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nerally viewed as too slow for early vision to be practical. Our approach is motivated by some recent work in stereo, where fast energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts =-=[6, 7, 12, 14, 20, 21]-=-. These methods give strong experimental results in practice; for example, two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms (using real imagery with ground truth) found that a graph cut method gave the bes... |

230 |
Rapid octree construction from image sequences
- Szeliski
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of reconstructing a scene from multiple cameras has received a great deal of attention in the last few years. One extensively-explored approach to this problem is voxel occupancy. In voxel occupancy =-=[18, 25]-=- the scene is represented as a set of 3-dimensional voxels, and the task is to label the individual voxels as filled or empty. Voxel occupancy is typically solved using silhouette intersection, usuall... |

182 | A pixel dissimilarity measure that is insensitive to image sampling
- Birchfield, Tomasi
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ractically the same). We started with an initial solution in which all pixel are assigned to the label having the largest depth. For our data term D we made use of the method of Birchfield and Tomasi =-=[4]-=- to handle sampling artifacts, with a slight variation: we compute intensity intervals for each band (R,G,B) using four neighbors, and then take the average data penalty. (We used color images; result... |

175 | Markov random fields with efficient approximations
- Boykov, Veksler, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n viewed as too slow for early vision to be practical. Our approach is motivated by some recent work in early vision, where fast energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts =-=[6, 7, 12, 14, 20, 21]-=-. These methods give strong experimental results in practice, as documented in two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms using real imagery with dense ground truth [22, 27]. The energy that we minim... |

125 | Surface shape from the deformation of apparent contours - Cipolla, Blake - 1992 |

118 | Multiway cut for stereo and motion with slanted surfaces
- Birchfield, Tomasi
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ingle #-expansion of f when for all pixels p # P either f # (p) = f(p) or f # (p) = #. This notion of an expansion was proposed by [7], and forms the basis for several very e#ective stereo algorithms =-=[3, 7, 13, 14]-=-. Our algorithm is very straightforward; we simply select (in a fixed order or at random) a disparity #, and we find the unique configuration within a single #-expansion move (our local improvement st... |

118 | Handling occlusions in dense multi-view stereo
- Kang, Szeliski, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., these methods are fast enough to be quite practical, and yield quite promising experimental results for stereo [22, 27]. While energy minimization has been widely used for stereo, only a few papers =-=[13, 20, 24]-=- have used it for scene reconstruction. The energy minimization formalism has several advantages. It allows a clean specification of the problem to be solved, as opposed to the algorithm used to solve... |

112 |
Volumetric descriptions of objects from multiple views
- Martin, Aggarwal
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of reconstructing a scene from multiple cameras has received a great deal of attention in the last few years. One extensively-explored approach to this problem is voxel occupancy. In voxel occupancy =-=[18, 25]-=- the scene is represented as a set of 3-dimensional voxels, and the task is to label the individual voxels as filled or empty. Voxel occupancy is typically solved using silhouette intersection, usuall... |

107 | Complete dense stereovision using level set methods
- Faugeras, Keriven
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rency, which is an issue that we do not address. Another approach is to formulate the problem in terms of level sets, and to solve a system of partial di#erential equations using numerical techniques =-=[9]-=-. The major distinction between this approach and our work is that their problem formulation is continuous while ours is discrete. The discrete energy minimization approach is known to lead to strong ... |

95 | Occlusions, discontinuities, and epipolar lines in stereo
- Ishikawa, Geiger
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

92 | Stereo matching with transparency and matting
- Szeliski, Golland
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to ours, they do not treat the input images symmetrically. While we e#ectively compute a disparity map with respect to each camera, they compute a disparity map only with respect to a single camera. =-=[26]-=- also proposed the use of disparity maps for each camera, in an energy minimization approach. Their optimization scheme did not rely on graph cuts, and their emphasis was on the two-camera stereo prob... |

86 | Exact Voxel Occupancy with Graph Cuts
- Snow, Viola, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., these methods are fast enough to be quite practical, and yield quite promising experimental results for stereo [22, 27]. While energy minimization has been widely used for stereo, only a few papers =-=[13, 20, 24]-=- have used it for scene reconstruction. The energy minimization formalism has several advantages. It allows a clean specification of the problem to be solved, as opposed to the algorithm used to solve... |

77 |
Stochastic stereo matching over scale
- Barnard
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wn that stereo, like many problems in early vision, can be elegantly stated in terms of energy minimization [19]. The energy minimization problem has traditionally been solved via simulated annealing =-=[2, 11]-=-, which is well known to be extremely slow in practice. In the last few years powerful energy minimization algorithms have been developed based on graph cuts [6, 7, 12, 14, 21]. Unlike simulated annea... |

60 |
Stereo without epipolar lines: A maximum-flow formulation
- Roy
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

49 | An experimental comparison of stereo algorithms
- Szeliski, Zabih
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...trong experimental results in practice; for example, two recent evaluations of stereo algorithms (using real imagery with ground truth) found that a graph cut method gave the best overall performance =-=[22, 27]-=-. The energy that we minimize has three important properties: . it treats the input images symmetrically, . it handles visibility properly, and . it imposes spatial smoothness while also preserving di... |

7 |
Markov random fields with e#cient approximations
- Boykov, Veksler, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context |