## An Efficient Adaptive Search Algorithm for Scheduling Real-Time Traffic (1996)

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Venue: | In Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP ’96 |

Citations: | 5 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Xie96anefficient,

author = {Geoffrey G. Xie and Simon S. Lam},

title = {An Efficient Adaptive Search Algorithm for Scheduling Real-Time Traffic},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP ’96},

year = {1996},

pages = {14--22}

}

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### Abstract

For many service disciplines that provide delay guarantees, the scheduler of a channel repeatedly searches for the smallest element in a set of priority values (or deadlines). It is required that each search fin- ishes within a time bound. Furthermore, the search algorithm should be highly efficient. To meet these requirements, we have developed a search algorithm based upon a new data structure, called adaptive heap; it behaves like a heap most of the time, but adaptively changes its strategy when necessary to satisfy the time bound. We show that the algorithm has optimal worstcase time complexity and good average performance. To further improve efficiency, the basic algorithm is extended to include .the use of group scheduling. We present empirical results on the performance of adaptive heap search with and without group scheduling. We conclude that adaptive heap search performs as intended, and that group scheduling provides a substantial reduction in the scheduler's work when channel utiliza- tion is high.

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Citation Context ...ract_rain action is needed; else the heap_update_rain action is needed. We assume that either of these actions is carried out at the beginning 3The reader is referred to textbooks on algorithms, e.g. =-=[3]-=-, on how to implement these actions. 16 of the current packet transmission and is completed before the gate of the current packet transmission. Subsequently, multiple heap_inset1; actions, up to M, ma... |

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Citation Context ...ned to be the priority value of the head packet in its queue, for m = 1, 2,..., M. For the purpose of this paper, there is no need to know how priority values are computed. (The reader is referred to =-=[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14]-=- on computation methods for a variety of service disciplines. ) To find the next packet to transmit, the scheduler uses a search algorithm to find a flow, denoted by next flow, that has the smallest v... |

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Citation Context ...ned to be the priority value of the head packet in its queue, for m = 1, 2,..., M. For the purpose of this paper, there is no need to know how priority values are computed. (The reader is referred to =-=[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14]-=- on computation methods for a variety of service disciplines. ) To find the next packet to transmit, the scheduler uses a search algorithm to find a flow, denoted by next flow, that has the smallest v... |

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Citation Context ...ned to be the priority value of the head packet in its queue, for m = 1, 2,..., M. For the purpose of this paper, there is no need to know how priority values are computed. (The reader is referred to =-=[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14]-=- on computation methods for a variety of service disciplines. ) To find the next packet to transmit, the scheduler uses a search algorithm to find a flow, denoted by next flow, that has the smallest v... |

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Citation Context ...rantees, but not much work has been done on search algorithms needed to implement these disciplines. A sorted priority queue is often cited as an appropriate data structure for such search algorithms =-=[13]-=-. Keshav presented a specific implementation using heap search [9]. His priority-based scheduler, called PERC, was designed for the Fair Queuelug service discipline [4]. Heap search was found to have ... |

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Citation Context ...etworking literature as an appropriate solution. In the algorithms literature, various sorted-priority-queue implementations have been developed for the pending event set in discrete-event simulation =-=[2, 8]-=-. These algorithms, however, were designed to optimize average performance, with worst-case performance either not considered or, in fact, sacrificed. For service disciplines that provide delay guaran... |

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Citation Context ...d to implement these disciplines. A sorted priority queue is often cited as an appropriate data structure for such search algorithms [13]. Keshav presented a specific implementation using heap search =-=[9]-=-. His priority-based scheduler, called PERC, was designed for the Fair Queuelug service discipline [4]. Heap search was found to have good average performance, but worst-case performance was not consi... |

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19 | Group priority scheduling
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...make adaptive hea.p search even more efficient, particularly when channel utilization is high, the algorithm has been extended to implement group scheduling. The idea of group scheduling, proposed in =-=[10]-=-, is based upon the following observation: A large application data unit (such as a file or a video frame) is typically segmented and ;ransported by a network as a sequence of packets. The end-to-end ... |