## The Internet AS-Level Topology: Three Data Sources and One Definitive Metric

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Citations: | 85 - 15 self |

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@MISC{Mahadevan_theinternet,

author = {Priya Mahadevan and Dmitri Krioukov and Marina Fomenkov and Bradley Huffaker and Xenofontas Dimitropoulos and kc claffy and Amin Vahdat},

title = {The Internet AS-Level Topology: Three Data Sources and One Definitive Metric },

year = {}

}

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### Abstract

We calculate an extensive set of characteristics for Internet AS topologies extracted from the three data sources most frequently used by the research community: traceroutes, BGP, and WHOIS. We discover that traceroute and BGP topologies are similar to one another but differ substantially from the WHOIS topology. Among the widely considered metrics, we find that the joint degree distribution appears to fundamentally characterize Internet AS topologies as well as narrowly define values for other important metrics. We discuss the interplay between the specifics of the three data collection mechanisms and the resulting topology views. In particular, we show how the data collection peculiarities explain differences in the resulting joint degree distributions of the respective topologies. Finally, we release to the community the input topology datasets, along with the scripts and output of our calculations. This supplement should enable researchers to validate their models against real data and to make more informed selection of topology data sources for their specific needs.

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Citation Context ...aph Theory]: Network problems General Terms Measurement, Design, Theory Keywords Internet topology 1. INTRODUCTION Internet topology analysis and modeling has attracted substantial attention recently =-=[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]-=-1 because the Internet’s topological properties and their evolution are cornerstones of many practical and theoretical network research agendas. Routing, performance of applications and 1We intentiona... |

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Citation Context ...s to construct AS-level graphs of the Internet: traceroute measurements, BGP data, and the WHOIS database. We make all of our constructed graphs publicly available [12]. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) =-=[13]-=- is the protocol for routing among ASes in the Internet. RouteViews [10] collects BGP routing tables using 7 collectors, 5 of which are located in the USA, 1 in the UK and 1 in Japan. Each collector h... |

409 |
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Citation Context ...e of applications and 1We intentionally avoid citing the statistical physics literature, where the number of publications dedicated to the subject has exploded. For an introduction and references see =-=[8]-=-. protocols, robustness of the network under attack, etc., all depend on network topology. Since obtaining realistic topology data is crucial for the above agendas, researchers have focused on a varie... |

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Citation Context ...aph Theory]: Network problems General Terms Measurement, Design, Theory Keywords Internet topology 1. INTRODUCTION Internet topology analysis and modeling has attracted substantial attention recently =-=[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]-=-1 because the Internet’s topological properties and their evolution are cornerstones of many practical and theoretical network research agendas. Routing, performance of applications and 1We intentiona... |

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Citation Context ...aph Theory]: Network problems General Terms Measurement, Design, Theory Keywords Internet topology 1. INTRODUCTION Internet topology analysis and modeling has attracted substantial attention recently =-=[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]-=-1 because the Internet’s topological properties and their evolution are cornerstones of many practical and theoretical network research agendas. Routing, performance of applications and 1We intentiona... |

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Citation Context ... 2004, i.e., 31 daily graphs. Mapping skitter-observed IP addresses to AS numbers involves potential distortion, e.g., due to multi-origin ASes, that is, the same prefixes advertised by multiple ASes =-=[17]-=-, AS-sets, and private ASes. Both multi-origin ASes and AS-sets create ambiguous mappings between IP addresses and ASes, hence we filter them from each graph. In addition, we filter private ASes as th... |

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Citation Context ...s AS-sets [13], that is, lists of ASes with unknown interconnection structures. For both BGP tables and updates graph, we discard AS-sets from the data to avoid link ambiguity. We filter private ASes =-=[14]-=- because they create false links in the graph. We then merge the 31 daily graphs of March 2004 into one graph for each BGP data source. We show the overlap statistics of our graphs in Table 1. This ta... |

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Citation Context ... data sources. Our study fills this gap by analyzing and explaining topological properties of Internet AS-level graphs extracted from the three commonly-used data sources: (1) traceroute measurements =-=[9]-=-; (2) BGP [10]; and (3) theWHOIS database [11]. This work makes three key contributions to the field of topology research: 1. We calculate a range of topology metrics considered in the networking lite... |

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7 |
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Citation Context ...ided by RouteViews, CAIDA maps the IP addresses in the gathered IP paths to AS numbers, constructs the resulting AS-level topology graphs on a daily basis and makes these graphs publicly available at =-=[16]-=-. For this study, we start with daily graphs for each day of March 2004, i.e., 31 daily graphs. Mapping skitter-observed IP addresses to AS numbers involves potential distortion, e.g., due to multi-or... |

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3 |
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Citation Context |

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1 |
Comparative analysis of the Internet AS-level topologies extracted from different data sources: Data page,” http://www.caida.org/ analysis/topology/as topo comparisons
- CAIDA
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...logical features and observe that the joint degree distributions of the graphs define other crucial topological characteristics. 3. To promote and simplify further analysis and discussion, we release =-=[12]-=- the following data and results to the community: a) the AS-graphs representing the topologies extracted from the raw data sources; b) the full set of data plots (many not included in the paper) calcu... |

1 | Networks with given correlations,” http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0308336v1 - Dorogovtsev |