## A Finite-Slate Parser for Use in Speech Recognition

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@MISC{Church_afinite-slate,

author = {Kenneth W. Church},

title = {A Finite-Slate Parser for Use in Speech Recognition},

year = {}

}

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### Abstract

the application of finite-state parsing techniques at the phonetic level in order to exploit certain classes or " contextual constraints.-In the second section, the parsing framework is extended in order to account ['or 'feature spreading ' (i:.g., agreement and co-articulation) in a natural way. I. Parsing at the Phonetic Level It is well known that phonemcs have different acoustic/phonetic realizations depending on the context. Fur example, the phoneme/t/ is typically realized with a different allophone (phonetic variant) in syllable initial position than in syllable final position. In syllable initial position (e.g., Tom),/t/is almost always released (with a strong burst of energy) and aspirated (with h-like noise), whereas in syllable final position (e.g., cat.), /t / is often unreleased and unaspirated _ It is common practice in speech research to distinguish acoustic/phonetic properties that vary a great deal with context (e.g., release and

### Citations

505 | Lexical-Functional Grammar: A formal system for grammatical representation
- Kaplan, Bresnan
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ter---* velar-nasal velar-obstruent In an effort to alleviate this expansion problem, many researchers have proposed augmentations of various sorts (e.g., ATN registers [26], LFG constraint equations =-=[16]-=-, GPSG recta-rules till, local constraints [18], bit vectors [6, 22]). My own solution will be suggested after I have had a chance to describe the parser in further detail. 2..2 A Parser Based on Matr... |

432 | Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar - Gazdar, Klein, et al. - 1985 |

268 | Transition network grammars for natural language analysis
- Woods
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent (13c) homorganic-nasal-cluster---* velar-nasal velar-obstruent In an effort to alleviate this expansion problem, many researchers have proposed augmentations of various sorts (e.g., ATN registers =-=[26]-=-, LFG constraint equations [16], GPSG recta-rules till, local constraints [18], bit vectors [6, 22]). My own solution will be suggested after I have had a chance to describe the parser in further deta... |

45 |
A model of speech perception
- Cole, Jakimik
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... This view of allophonic variation is representative of much of the speech recognition literature, especially during the ARPA speech project. One can find similar statements by Cole and Jakim~k ICMU) =-=[5]-=- and by Jelinek (IBM)[17]. I prefer to think of variation as usefid. It is well known that atlophonic contrasts can be distinctive, as illustrated by the following famous minimal pairs where the cruci... |

39 | Duration and intensity as physical correlates of linguistic stress - Fry - 1955 |

35 |
Review of the ARPA Speech Understanding Project
- Klatt
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the ~atures overlap m an asynchronous way. The parser will correctly locate the coda by intersecting the nasal cluster lattice (computed with (17a)) with the homorganic lattice (computed with (17b)). =-=(20)-=- t a n t nasal cluster: I ....... J homonganJc: I ..... I coda: I ..... I This parser is a bold departure from a standard practice in two respects: (1) the input stream is feature-based rather than se... |

22 |
Preliminary Analysis of the Breadth-first Parsing Algorithm: Theoretical and Experimental Results
- Martin, Church, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s expansion problem, many researchers have proposed augmentations of various sorts (e.g., ATN registers [26], LFG constraint equations [16], GPSG recta-rules till, local constraints [18], bit vectors =-=[6, 22]-=-). My own solution will be suggested after I have had a chance to describe the parser in further detail. 2..2 A Parser Based on Matrix Operations This scction will show how the grammar can be implemen... |

8 | Phrase structure trees bear more fruit than you would have thought
- Joshi, Levy
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t to alleviate this expansion problem, many researchers have proposed augmentations of various sorts (e.g., ATN registers [26], LFG constraint equations [16], GPSG recta-rules till, local constraints =-=[18]-=-, bit vectors [6, 22]). My own solution will be suggested after I have had a chance to describe the parser in further detail. 2..2 A Parser Based on Matrix Operations This scction will show how the gr... |

6 |
Remarks on the Metrical Structure of the Syllable
- KIPARSKY
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ser Based on Matrix Operations This scction will show how the grammar can be implemented in terms of operations on binary matrices. decomposed into a sum of binary matrices: Suppose that the chart is =-=(14)-=- Chart = syl Msy I + onset Monse t + peak Mpeak + .,. where Msy I is a binary matrix 8 describing the location of syllables and Monse t is a binary matrix describing the location of onsets, and so for... |

3 |
Word Verification in a Speech Understanding System
- Klatt
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...puted in parallel with (17b). mid then the rcsulLs are aligned whcn the coda is computed with (16), as illustrated below for the word tent. Imagine that the front end produces the following analysis: =-=(19)-=- t a n t dental: I-I I ..... vowel: I-..I stop: I.I I ..... I nasalization: I..I where many of the ~atures overlap m an asynchronous way. The parser will correctly locate the coda by intersecting the ... |

2 | How Features Resolve Syntactic Ambiguity
- Dostert, Thompson
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s expansion problem, many researchers have proposed augmentations of various sorts (e.g., ATN registers [26], LFG constraint equations [16], GPSG recta-rules till, local constraints [18], bit vectors =-=[6, 22]-=-). My own solution will be suggested after I have had a chance to describe the parser in further detail. 2..2 A Parser Based on Matrix Operations This scction will show how the grammar can be implemen... |

2 |
Temporal organization of articulatory movements as a multidimensional phrasal structure
- Fujimura
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[1" I is always syllable final, allophonic (8c) [?] is always syllable final, and allophonie (Sd) [t h] is always syllable initial, allophonic the parser can insert the following syllable boundaries: =-=(9)-=- [di~} # hlf. # I ? # tht # tham] It is now it is relatively easy to decode the utterance with lcxical matching routines similar to those in Smith's Noah program at CMU {241. parsed transcription, dec... |

1 |
An Algorithm for Segment Durations in a Reading Machine Context, unpublished doctoral dissertation, department of Electrical Engineering and
- Bamwell
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h the homorganic lattice (computed with (17b)). (20) t a n t nasal cluster: I ....... J homonganJc: I ..... I coda: I ..... I This parser is a bold departure from a standard practice in two respects: =-=(1)-=- the input stream is feature-based rather than segmental, and (2) the output parse is a heterarchy of overlapping constituents (e.g., place and manner phrases) as opposed to a list of hierarchical par... |

1 |
On Memoo
- Church
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ning a homorganic nasal cluster to be a nasal cluster ]0. I personally hold a much more controversial posution, that tinite state grammars are sufficient for most. if not nil, natural language )-asks =-=[3]-=-. 95subject to phlcc assimilation. In my language of matrix operations, I can say just exactly that: (16) (setq homorganic-na~l-cluster-lattice (M& nasal-cluster-lattice place-assimilation)) where M&... |

1 |
An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm
- Farley
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Wavetom ~ ~ ~IL . ~ ~,.. I L I', I L ._ J.~ , I .. t , -t_~! I -.1 L.] I l I I Did you hit it to Tom 92Klatt's example (enlu, nced with allophonic diacritics to show aspiration and glottalization): =-=(7)-=- [drjighlff tht thaml TTr Using phonotactic and allophonic constraints on syllable structure such as: 3 Lax vowels are restricted to closed syllables (sylkdgles ending in a consonant) [I]. However, in... |

1 |
Syllables as Concatenative Phonetic UralS
- unknown authors
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cture, it will often be able to find the correct structure by taking advantage of some other redundam cue. [:or example, suppose that the front end failed to notice die glottalized/t./in the word it. =-=(10)-=- dl]i9 #hlf_# I #tha #tham T The parser could deduce that the input transcription (10) is internally inconsistent, because of a phonotactic constraint on the lax vowel/I/. 3. This formulation of the e... |

1 |
Syllable-Based (ieneralizations ht lOtglish Phonology
- Kahn
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... on the grounds that these constituents seem to capture crucial linguistic generalizations (e.g., question formation, wh-movement), so too, I might argue (along with certain phonologists such as Kahn =-=[13]-=-) that syllables, onsets, and rhymes are constituents because they also capture important generalizations such as aspiration, tensing and laxing. If this constituency hypothesis for phonology is corre... |

1 |
course notes
- Jetinek
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... variation is representative of much of the speech recognition literature, especially during the ARPA speech project. One can find similar statements by Cole and Jakim~k ICMU) [5] and by Jelinek (IBM)=-=[17]-=-. I prefer to think of variation as usefid. It is well known that atlophonic contrasts can be distinctive, as illustrated by the following famous minimal pairs where the crucial distinctions seem to l... |

1 | Speech Recognition by Machine: A Review - Reddv - 1976 |

1 |
General Context Free Recognition in Less Than Cubic Time
- Valient
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... known that any finite-state grammar could be implemented in this way with just three matrix operations: M,, M+, and M** (transitive closure). If context-free power were required, Valient's algorithm =-=[25]-=- could be employed. However, since there doesn't seem to be a need tbr additional generative capacity in speech applications, the system is restricted to handle only the simpler finite state case. 1° ... |