## Efficient Normal-Form Parsing for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (1996)

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Venue: | IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH MEETING OF THE ACL |

Citations: | 52 - 2 self |

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@INPROCEEDINGS{Eisner96efficientnormal-form,

author = {Jason Eisner},

title = {Efficient Normal-Form Parsing for Combinatory Categorial Grammar},

booktitle = {IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 34TH MEETING OF THE ACL},

year = {1996},

pages = {79--86},

publisher = {}

}

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### Abstract

Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple n-word sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normal-form parsing technique. The parser

### Citations

488 | The mathematics of sentence structure
- Lambek
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty has focused on categorial formalisms with substantially less power. (Hepple, 1990) and(Hendriks, 1993), themost rigorous pieces of work, each establish a normal form for the syntactic calculus of (=-=Lambek, 1958-=-), which is weakly context-free. (König, 1989; Moortgat, 1990) have also studied the Lambek calculus case. (Hepple & Morrill, 1989), who introduced the idea of normalform parsing, consider only a smal... |

108 |
Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction
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Citation Context ...ses to replace composition with a new combinator, but the resulting product-grammar scheme as2 This formalization sweeps any type-raising into the lexicon, as has been proposed on linguistic grounds (=-=Dowty, 1988-=-; Steedman, 1991, and others). It also treats conjunction lexically, by giving “and” the generalized category x\x/x and barring it from composition. signs different types to “John likes” and “Mary pre... |

108 | Gapping as constituent coordination - Steedman - 1990 |

84 | The equivalence of four extensions of context-free grammars - Vijay-Shanker, Weir - 1994 |

78 |
Studied Flexibility: Categories and Types in Syntax and Semantics
- Hendriks
- 1993
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Citation Context ...rem 2 is proved by showing that the terms for α and α ′ differ somewhere, so correspond to different semantic recipes. Similar theorems for the Lambek calculus were previously shown by (Hepple, 1990; =-=Hendriks, 1993-=-). The present proofs for CCG establish a result that has long been suspected: the spurious ambiguity problem is not actually very widespread in CCG. Theorem 2 says all cases of spurious ambiguity can... |

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- 1994
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Citation Context ...lexible” categorial grammars, suffers from spurious ambiguity (Wittenburg, 1986). The non-standard constituents that are so crucial to CCG’s analyses in (1), and in its account of intonational focus (=-=Prevost & Steedman, 1994-=-), remain available even in simpler sentences. This renders (2) syntactically ambiguous. (1) a. Coordination: [[John likes] S/NP, and [Mary pretends to like] S/NP], the big galoot in the corner. b. Ex... |

71 |
Combinatory Grammars and Parasitic Gaps", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 5
- Steedman
- 1987
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Citation Context ...iguities arise (as is shown) in only a small set of circumstances. Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & =-=Steedman, 1987-=-; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracateg... |

68 | The Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency: A Categorial Approach
- Hepple
- 1990
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Citation Context ...een attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; =-=Hepple, 1990-=-; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formalism havingmorethancontextfree power. 2 Definitions and Related Work CCGmayberega... |

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- 1993
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Citation Context ...wo templates of (4). Any CFG-style method can still parse the resulting spuriosity-free grammar, with tagged parses as in (8). In particular, the polynomial-time, polynomialspace CCG chart parser of (=-=Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1993-=-) can be trivially adapted to respect the constraints by tagging chart entries.(9) –fc output of >Bn, some n ≥ 1 (a forward composition rule) –bc output of <Bn, some n ≥ 1 (a backward composition rul... |

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Bound Variables in Syntax. (Are there any
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Citation Context ...o TAG, rules based on the S (“substitution”) and T (“type-raising”) combinators can be linguistically useful. S provides another rule template, used in the analysis of parasitic gaps (Steedman, 1987; =-=Szabolcsi, 1989-=-): (16) a. >S: x/y|1z ⇕ f y|1z ⇕ g → x|1z ⇕ λz.f(z)(g(z)) b. <S: y|1z x\y|1z → x|1z Although S interacts with Bn to produce another source of spurious ambiguity, illustrated in (17), the additional am... |

32 |
Structure and intonation. Language
- Steedman
- 1991
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Citation Context ...e composition with a new combinator, but the resulting product-grammar scheme as2 This formalization sweeps any type-raising into the lexicon, as has been proposed on linguistic grounds (Dowty, 1988; =-=Steedman, 1991-=-, and others). It also treats conjunction lexically, by giving “and” the generalized category x\x/x and barring it from composition. signs different types to “John likes” and “Mary pretends to like,” ... |

32 | Polynomial time parsing of combinatory categorial grammars
- Vijay-Shanker, Weir
- 1990
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Citation Context ... Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; =-=Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990-=-; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formalism havingmorethancontextfree power. 2 Definitions and Related Wor... |

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- Hepple, Morrill
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in only a small set of circumstances. Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; Bouma, 1989; =-=Hepple & Morrill, 1989-=-; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formalism havingmorethancontext... |

27 |
Natural language parsing with combinatory categorial grammar in a graph- unification based formalism
- Wittenburg
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ined) is shown to be both safely and completely eliminated. 1 Introduction Combinatory Categorial Grammar (Steedman, 1990), like other “flexible” categorial grammars, suffers from spurious ambiguity (=-=Wittenburg, 1986-=-). The non-standard constituents that are so crucial to CCG’s analyses in (1), and in its account of intonational focus (Prevost & Steedman, 1994), remain available even in simpler sentences. This ren... |

27 |
Parsing as natural deduction
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- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ircumstances. Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; =-=König, 1989-=-; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formalism havingmorethancontextfree power. 2... |

11 |
Unambiguous Proof Representations for the Lambek Calculus
- Moortgat
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; =-=Moortgat, 1990-=-; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formalism havingmorethancontextfree power. 2 Definitions and Related Work CCGmayberegardedasageneraliz... |

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- Bouma
- 1989
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Citation Context ...as is shown) in only a small set of circumstances. Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; Pareschi & Steedman, 1987; =-=Bouma, 1989-=-; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracategorial formali... |

5 | Parsing as natural deduction - KSnig - 1989 |

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A lazy way to chart parse with combinatory grammars
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- 1987
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Citation Context ...purious ambiguities arise (as is shown) in only a small set of circumstances. Although similar work has been attempted in the past, with varying degrees of success (Karttunen, 1986; Wittenburg, 1986; =-=Pareschi & Steedman, 1987-=-; Bouma, 1989; Hepple & Morrill, 1989; König, 1989; Vijay-Shanker & Weir, 1990; Hepple, 1990; Moortgat, 1990; Hendriks, 1993; Niv, 1994), this appears to be the first full normal-form result foracateg... |

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Methods for parsing combinatory categorial grammar and the spurious ambiguity problem. Unpublished M.Sc
- Hepple
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... types to “John likes” and “Mary pretends to like,” thus losing the ability to conjoin such constituents or subcategorize for them as a class. (Pareschi & Steedman, 1987) do tackle the CCG case, but (=-=Hepple, 1987-=-) shows their algorithm to be incomplete. 3 Overview of the Parsing Strategy As is well known, general CFG parsing methods can be applied directly to CCG. Any sort of chart parser or non-deterministic... |

1 | Polynomial time parsing of combinatory ¢ategorial grammars - Vijay-Shanker, Weir - 1990 |

1 | Apsycholinguisticallymotivated parser for CCG - MichaelNiv - 1994 |

1 | Gappingasconstituentcoordination. Linguistics and Philosophy - MarkSteedman - 1990 |