## An Analysis of Bitstate Hashing (1995)

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Citations: | 85 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Holzmann95ananalysis,

author = {Gerard J. Holzmann},

title = {An Analysis of Bitstate Hashing},

year = {1995}

}

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### Abstract

The bitstate hashing, or supertrace, technique was introduced in 1987 as a method to increase the quality of verification by reachability analyses for applications that defeat analysis by traditional means because of their size. Since then, the technique has been included in many research verification tools, and was adopted in tools that are marketed commercially. It is therefore important that we understand well how and why the method works, what its limitations are, and how it compares with alternative methods over a broad range of problem sizes. The original

### Citations

1371 | The model checker spin
- Holzmann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nerated mechanically. __________________ 2. SPIN is available via anonymous ftp from the machine netlib.bell-labs.com, in directory /netlib/spin. More information on SPIN itself can be found in [H91],=-=[H97]-=-. AN ANALYSIS OF BITSTATE HASHING 13 Accuracy of the Predictions To check the validity of the assumptions on which the sequential bitstate hashing technique is based, we performed a series of measurem... |

811 |
Design and Validation of Computer Protocols
- Holzmann
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... improvements. Keywords Verification, concurrent systems, protocols, bitstate hashing, supertrace, SPIN 1. INTRODUCTION The bitstate hashing technique, introduced in [H87] and elaborated in [H88] and =-=[H91]-=-, can be shown to perform relatively high coverage verifications within a memory arena that may be orders of magnitude smaller than required for exhaustive verifications. The method has made it possib... |

65 | Reliable hashing without collision detection
- Wolper, Leroy
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...plains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with two alternative techniques that have been proposed in the recent literature as potential improvements =-=[WL93]-=-. Problem Definition In the following, let N be the total number of reachable states of the concurrent system, i.e., the number of distinct nodes in the reachability graph that describes its behavior.... |

60 | Coverage preserving reduction strategies for reachability analysis - Holzmann, Godefroid, et al. - 1992 |

52 | An improved protocol reachability analysis technique - Holzmann - 1988 |

38 |
State space caching revisited
- GODEFROID, HOLZMANN, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an remove the fundamental computational complexity of the reachability analysis problem itself. Sequential bitstate hashing, like other memory management techniques such as state space caching (e.g., =-=[GoHo92]-=-) trades memory use for runtime, and in extreme cases incurs an exponentially increasing runtime cost to approximate the results of an exhaustive search in shrinking memory. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Doug McIl... |

36 | Improved probabilistic verification by hash compaction
- Stern, Dill
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the storage of the 64 bit keys are not derived from the 64 bits themselves (as would be the normal procedure), but from the original S bits of the state descriptor, with an independent hash function =-=[SD95]-=-, the effective number of bits of information stored with this method is 64 + log(H), where H is the number of slots in the conventional hash table. Alternatively, the states can be compressed from S ... |

35 | On limits and possibilities of automated protocols analysis
- Holzmann
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the recent literature as potential improvements. Keywords Verification, concurrent systems, protocols, bitstate hashing, supertrace, SPIN 1. INTRODUCTION The bitstate hashing technique, introduced in =-=[H87]-=- and elaborated in [H88] and [H91], can be shown to perform relatively high coverage verifications within a memory arena that may be orders of magnitude smaller than required for exhaustive verificati... |

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- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ive verifications. The method has made it possible to apply formal verification techniques to problems that would normally have remained beyond the scope of automated tools, e.g. [C91], [C94], [L94], =-=[H94a]-=-, [H94b]. This paper provides an analytical argument that explains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with two alternative techniques that have been ... |

22 | A New Scheme for Memory-Efficient Probabilistic Verification
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- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...des an analytical argument that explains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with alternative techniques, hash-compact, and multihash [WL93], [SD95], =-=[SD96]-=-. We show that a variation of the multihash technique, sequential bitstate hashing, that can outperform the other algorithms when applied to very large problem sizes. Problem Definition In the followi... |

17 | Modelling and verification of a multiprocessor realtime OS kernel
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11 |
Formal methods at AT&T { an industrial usage report
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- 1991
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Citation Context ... required for exhaustive verifications. The method has made it possible to apply formal verification techniques to problems that would normally have remained beyond the scope of automated tools, e.g. =-=[C91]-=-, [C94], [L94], [H94a], [H94b]. This paper provides an analytical argument that explains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with two alternative tech... |

6 | Proving the Value of Formal Methods
- Holzmann
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fications. The method has made it possible to apply formal verification techniques to problems that would normally have remained beyond the scope of automated tools, e.g. [C91], [C94], [L94], [H94a], =-=[H94b]-=-. This paper provides an analytical argument that explains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with two alternative techniques that have been proposed... |

2 | The Theory and Practice of a Formal Method - Holzmann - 1994 |

1 | Specification and validation of communications in client/server models
- Lin
- 1994
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Citation Context ...exhaustive verifications. The method has made it possible to apply formal verification techniques to problems that would normally have remained beyond the scope of automated tools, e.g. [C91], [C94], =-=[L94]-=-, [H94a], [H94b]. This paper provides an analytical argument that explains the performance of the algorithm. The analysis is then extended to compare the method with two alternative techniques that ha... |