## One-Level Phonology: Autosegmental Representations and Rules as Finite Automata (1992)

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Venue: | Computational Linguistics |

Citations: | 41 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Bird92one-levelphonology:,

author = {Steven Bird and T. Mark Ellison},

title = {One-Level Phonology: Autosegmental Representations and Rules as Finite Automata},

journal = {Computational Linguistics},

year = {1992},

volume = {20},

pages = {55--90}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

this paper we present a finite-state model of phonology in which automata are the descriptions and tapes (or strings) are the objects being described. This provides the formal semantics for an autosegmental phonology without structure-changing rules. Logical operations on the phonological domain--such as conjunction, disjunction, and negation--make sense since the phonological domain consists of descriptions rather than objects. These operations as applied to automata are the straightforward operations of intersection, union, and complement. If the arrow in a rewrite rule is viewed as logical implication, then a phonological rule can also be represented as an automaton, albeit a less restrictive automaton than would be required for a lexical representation. The model is then compared with the transducer models for autosegmental phonology of Kay (1987), Kornai (1991), and Wiebe (1992). We conclude that the declarative approach to phonology presents an attractive way of extending finite-state techniques to autosegmental phonology while remaining within the confines of regular grammar

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Citation Context ...e (123) + . The complement of an automaton A, written A, accepts a string s iff A rejects s. One way of forming the complement involves the following steps. First, the automaton must be DETERMINIZED (=-=Hopcroft and Ullman 1979-=-, pp. 22ff). The next step is to form the COMPLETION. A complete automaton is one that has a transition from every state for each element of G. The final step is to mark all final states nonfinal, and... |

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Citation Context ...mata for rules. Finally, in one-level phonology surface forms and generalizations about them are stated directly in a hierarchical lexicon akin to that of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) (=-=Pollard and Sag 1987-=-), rather than being mediated through a transducer (Bird and Klein, in press). 4. Association and Synchronization In this section we present the automaton-based semantics for autosegmental phonology. ... |

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Citation Context ... Perhaps the SPE model could be rescued from these problems with additional stipulations. However, a more fundamental problem for the model was raised by the following tone language data (Leben 1973; =-=Goldsmith 1976-=-). At first blush, Mende vowels appear to manifest five tone patterns, namely high (ko), low (kph), falling (mbfi), rising (mb~) and rise-fall (mbS). The SPE model would predict 25 tonal patterns for ... |

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Citation Context ... that each morpheme appears on a separate autosegmental tier. However, most applications of autosegmental phonology employ morphemes with phonological information arrayed on more than one tier (e.g., =-=Clements and Ford 1979-=-). Similarly, the modeling of subsegmental feature geometry of the kind advocated by Clements (1985) and others also involves a single morpheme having material on several tiers. Third, the model break... |

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Citation Context ... A " " {AIAIA AIAI " " A • • B B B • • B B • B B B What kind of automaton will give us the required behavior? The clue is that a pair of intervals overlap if and only if =-=they share a point in common (Bird and Klein 1990, p�-=-�� 36)• Note that in each of the above diagrams, the third interval contains an instance of both A and B, and the existence of this interval was both a necessary and sufficient requirement for the a... |

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Citation Context ...y unnatural. Perhaps the SPE model could be rescued from these problems with additional stipulations. However, a more fundamental problem for the model was raised by the following tone language data (=-=Leben 1973-=-; Goldsmith 1976). At first blush, Mende vowels appear to manifest five tone patterns, namely high (ko), low (kph), falling (mbfi), rising (mb~) and rise-fall (mbS). The SPE model would predict 25 ton... |

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Citation Context ... phonology while remaining within the confines of regular grammar. 1. Introduction The decade since the publication of Koskenniemi's dissertation (1983) and since the development of the KIMMO system (=-=Karttunen 1983-=-) has witnessed a spectacular flurry of activity as the linguistic and computational consequences of this work have been fleshed out. A considerable body of literature has grown up around TWO-LEVEL MO... |

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Citation Context ...sky and Halle 1968, pp. 400ff). For example, it is unable to explain why a final devoicing rule like that in (2a) is commonplace in the languages of the world, whereas the rule in (2b) is unattested (=-=Kaye 1989-=-, p. 61). 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) [-sonorant] --* [-voice] / --# [-sonorant] --+ [+nasal] / --# [] --* [anasal] / [anasal] --# [] ~ [around] / [anasal]- # Similarly, the nasal harmony rule in (2c) occurs f... |

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Citation Context ..., Centre for Cognitive Science, 2 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh EH8 9LW, Scotland, U.K. E-mail: {steven,marke}@cogsci.ed.ac.uk 1 (Antworth 1990; Ritchie, Russell, Black, and Pulman 1992; Sproat 1992) 2 (=-=Bear 1986-=-; Antworth 1990; Schiller and Steffens 1991; Pulman and Hepple 1993) 3 Two caveats are necessary here. SPE rules must be restricted so as not to apply to their own output (Johnson 1972) and there is n... |

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Citation Context ...nd project the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; Bird 1990; Coleman 1991; Scobbie 1991; =-=Broe 1993-=-; Russell 1993; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this last expression simplifies to i+a+o +, whi... |

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Citation Context ...ostratal, in that there is only one level of linguistic description. Second, the name is intended to contrast with models employing two levels (such as the FST model mentioned above) or three levels (=-=Goldsmith 1991-=-; Touretzky and Wheeler 1990), or an unbounded number of levels (Chomsky and Halle 1968). The one-level model represents the outgrowth of three independent strands of research: (i) the finitestate mod... |

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One level phonology: autosegmental representations and rules as finite automata
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Citation Context ...can associate segments in any part of one tier to segments in any part of the facing tier. In order for any computational 22 Wiebe borrows the terms SFA and SFT from an earlier version of this paper (=-=Bird and Ellison 1992-=-). 85sComputational Linguistics Volume 20, Number 1 device to efficiently process autosegmental representations, it must be able to scan two associated segments from widely separated parts of the repr... |

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Citation Context ...nburgh EH8 9LW, Scotland, U.K. E-mail: {steven,marke}@cogsci.ed.ac.uk 1 (Antworth 1990; Ritchie, Russell, Black, and Pulman 1992; Sproat 1992) 2 (Bear 1986; Antworth 1990; Schiller and Steffens 1991; =-=Pulman and Hepple 1993-=-) 3 Two caveats are necessary here. SPE rules must be restricted so as not to apply to their own output (Johnson 1972) and there is no guarantee that the transducer encoding an SPE rule can be express... |

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Citation Context ... as HPSG (Pollard and Sag 1987). Such a move gives rise to a novel view of the relationship between phonology and the other modules of grammar, as some initial investigation has already demonstrated (=-=Bird 1992-=-; Bird and Klein in press). Making surface generalizations the only goal of analysis makes the machine learning of analyses simpler (Ellison forthcoming). The automaton semantics for autosegmental rep... |

17 |
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Citation Context ...E rules must be restricted so as not to apply to their own output (Johnson 1972) and there is no guarantee that the transducer encoding an SPE rule can be expressed using the two-level rule notation (=-=Ritchie 1992-=-). (~) 1994 Association for Computational LinguisticssComputational Linguistics Volume 20, Number 1 grammar frameworks on the one hand and modern nonlinear phonology on the other. The primary goal of ... |

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Citation Context ...r bound on the number of tapes Kay's transducer would require. The assumption that each morpheme defines its own set of tiers, implicit in early work (McCarthy 1981) but explicit in more recent work (=-=McCarthy 1989-=-), is incompatible with a fixed upper bound on the number of tapes. Finally, using Kay's model for recognition would lead to much nondeterminism in positing G symbols, brackets, and braces. For exampl... |

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Citation Context ...onsequences of this work have been fleshed out. A considerable body of literature has grown up around TWO-LEVEL MORPHOLOGY, along with texts 1 and implementations. 2 The existence of a rule compiler (=-=Koskenniemi 1985-=-) has made it possible for the linguist to work at a conveniently abstract level, and analyses of several languages now exemplify the approach. Today, two-level morphology encompasses much of traditio... |

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Citation Context ...l step is to compute the intersection and project the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; =-=Bird 1990-=-; Coleman 1991; Scobbie 1991; Broe 1993; Russell 1993; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this las... |

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Citation Context ...coding in the format exemplified in (20). 4.5 Evaluating the Encoding Now, we evaluate our encoding with respect to Kornai's desiderata: computability, compositionality, invertibility, and iconicity (=-=Kornai 1991-=-). Computability: The number of terms in the encoding is equal to the number of autosegments, and each term has a fixed size} 3 Therefore, the encoding can be computed in linear time. Compositionality... |

9 |
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Citation Context ...t there is only one level of linguistic description. Second, the name is intended to contrast with models employing two levels (such as the FST model mentioned above) or three levels (Goldsmith 1991; =-=Touretzky and Wheeler 1990-=-), or an unbounded number of levels (Chomsky and Halle 1968). The one-level model represents the outgrowth of three independent strands of research: (i) the finitestate modeling of phonology, (ii) the... |

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Citation Context ..., 0)* The final step is to compute the intersection and project the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 =-=Wheeler 1981-=-; Bird 1990; Coleman 1991; Scobbie 1991; Broe 1993; Russell 1993; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round feature... |

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4 |
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Citation Context ...ent of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; Bird 1990; Coleman 1991; Scobbie 1991; Broe 1993; Russell 1993; =-=Mastroianni 1993-=-. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this last expression simplifies to i+a+o +, which describes an automaton tape (... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...intersection and project the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; Bird 1990; Coleman 1991; =-=Scobbie 1991-=-; Broe 1993; Russell 1993; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this last expression simplifies to i... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...ity of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Science, 2 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh EH8 9LW, Scotland, U.K. E-mail: {steven,marke}@cogsci.ed.ac.uk 1 (Antworth 1990; Ritchie, Russell, Black, and Pulman 1992; =-=Sproat 1992-=-) 2 (Bear 1986; Antworth 1990; Schiller and Steffens 1991; Pulman and Hepple 1993) 3 Two caveats are necessary here. SPE rules must be restricted so as not to apply to their own output (Johnson 1972) ... |

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3 |
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Citation Context ...o compute the intersection and project the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; Bird 1990; =-=Coleman 1991-=-; Scobbie 1991; Broe 1993; Russell 1993; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this last expression s... |

3 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th of three independent strands of research: (i) the finitestate modeling of phonology, (ii) the declarative approach to phonology, 4 and (iii) the automatic learning of phonological generalizations (=-=Ellison 1992-=-, 1993). The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an overview of autosegmental phonology and the temporal semantics of Bird and Klein (1990). Then we define state-labeled automata (Sectio... |

2 |
A constraint-based approach to phonology. Doctoral dissertation
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Citation Context ...the first element of each tuple (ignoring the ls and 0s). This produces the expression: (+hi A -rnd) + (-hi N -rnd) + (-hi n +rnd) +. 4 Wheeler 1981; Bird 1990; Coleman 1991; Scobbie 1991; Broe 1993; =-=Russell 1993-=-; Mastroianni 1993. 56sSteven Bird and T. Mark Ellison One-Level Phonology Given plausible interpretations of the high and round features, this last expression simplifies to i+a+o +, which describes a... |

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