## Designing Sets of Instructional Examples to Accomplish Different Goals of Instruction

Citations: | 1 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Schorr_designingsets,

author = {Tina Schorr and Peter Gerjets and Katharina Scheiter},

title = {Designing Sets of Instructional Examples to Accomplish Different Goals of Instruction},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper we discuss issues of instructional design with regard to different goals of instruction in the context of learning from examples. Two different approaches for identifying suitable instructional methods are considered: First, a cognitive task analysis is presented that examines problem-solving strategies applicable for solving mathematical word problems from a cognitive-modeling perspective. The second approach is based on a review of empirical findings on designing instructional examples. Together, these considerations lead to the selection of two instructional methods that are expected to foster learning with respect to different goals of instruction. This assumption is tested in two experimental studies presented in this paper. Problem-Solving Strategies for Mathematical

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Citation Context ... can be classified as search-based, example-based, or schema-based, respectively. Search-based strategies like means-end analysis are appropriate to solve puzzle problems like the Tower of Hanoi (cf. =-=Newell & Simon, 1972-=-) which do not presuppose domainspecific prior knowledge (knowledge-lean problems according to VanLehn, 1989). However, more complex tasks (like solving mathematical word problems) require example-bas... |

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Citation Context ...nterprets a given mathematical word problem. On basis of this interpretationprocess a situation model can be constructed which represents the situation described in the text in a compressed form (cf. =-=Kintsch, 1998-=-). This situation model is then interpreted in a mathematical fashion by matching it with domain-specific schemas representing different problems categories and their appropriate solutions. Thus, in t... |

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Word problems
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Citation Context ...ivalent test problems. These are characterized by a near transfer distance because they belong to the same problem category as the instructional examples and are embedded within the same cover story (=-=Reed, 1999-=-). In order to solve such problems by using the keyword-strategy only a very limited amount of problem-solving time and a small knowledge base, mainly containing superficial keywords, are necessary pr... |

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Citation Context ...wo strategies will be outlined according to their subgoal structures. • The keyword-strategy is an example-based strategy that uses concrete knowledge about examples when working on new problems (cf. =-=Sowder, 1988-=-). The strategy is characterized by bottom-up processing based on the mechanism of principle-cueing (Ross, 1987). The respective ACT-Rmodel starts with reading a given word problem in order to reach t... |

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Citation Context ...as used in order to solve the examples. • The situation model-strategy is a schema-based strategy that operates on a more abstract and elaborated knowledge base and relies on top-down processing (cf. =-=Reusser, 1990-=-). The ACT-R model of this strategy again starts with reading, but at the same time it interprets a given mathematical word problem. On basis of this interpretationprocess a situation model can be con... |