## Designing Sets of Instructional Examples to Accomplish Different Goals of Instruction

Citations: | 1 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Schorr_designingsets,

author = {Tina Schorr and Peter Gerjets and Katharina Scheiter},

title = {Designing Sets of Instructional Examples to Accomplish Different Goals of Instruction},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper we discuss issues of instructional design with regard to different goals of instruction in the context of learning from examples. Two different approaches for identifying suitable instructional methods are considered: First, a cognitive task analysis is presented that examines problem-solving strategies applicable for solving mathematical word problems from a cognitive-modeling perspective. The second approach is based on a review of empirical findings on designing instructional examples. Together, these considerations lead to the selection of two instructional methods that are expected to foster learning with respect to different goals of instruction. This assumption is tested in two experimental studies presented in this paper. Problem-Solving Strategies for Mathematical

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Citation Context ... can be classified as search-based, example-based, or schema-based, respectively. Search-based strategies like means-end analysis are appropriate to solve puzzle problems like the Tower of Hanoi (cf. =-=Newell & Simon, 1972-=-) which do not presuppose domainspecific prior knowledge (knowledge-lean problems according to VanLehn, 1989). However, more complex tasks (like solving mathematical word problems) require example-bas... |

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Citation Context ... for solving mathematical word problems (i.e., the keyword-strategy and the situation model-strategy) by formalizing them as executable computer models within the framework of the ACT-R-architecture (=-=Anderson & Lebiere, 1998-=-). In the following paragraphs the two strategies will be outlined according to their subgoal structures. • The keyword-strategy is an example-based strategy that uses concrete knowledge about example... |

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Citation Context ...nterprets a given mathematical word problem. On basis of this interpretationprocess a situation model can be constructed which represents the situation described in the text in a compressed form (cf. =-=Kintsch, 1998-=-). This situation model is then interpreted in a mathematical fashion by matching it with domain-specific schemas representing different problems categories and their appropriate solutions. Thus, in t... |

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Citation Context ...strategy that uses concrete knowledge about examples when working on new problems (cf. Sowder, 1988). The strategy is characterized by bottom-up processing based on the mechanism of principle-cueing (=-=Ross, 1987-=-). The respective ACT-Rmodel starts with reading a given word problem in order to reach the top goal of solving it. While reading, a text phrase that contains certain keywords (or very similar express... |

52 |
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Citation Context ...s-end analysis are appropriate to solve puzzle problems like the Tower of Hanoi (cf. Newell & Simon, 1972) which do not presuppose domainspecific prior knowledge (knowledge-lean problems according to =-=VanLehn, 1989-=-). However, more complex tasks (like solving mathematical word problems) require example-based or schema-based strategies that operate on a rather elaborated knowledge base. Example-based strategies u... |

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Citation Context ...ings on designing instructional examples. Instructional Design: Learning from Examples The advantages of using examples as learning material have been pointed out in many studies (for an overview cf. =-=Atkinson, Derry, Renkl, & Wortham, 2000-=-). It could be demonstrated that studying examples is of great help for knowledge acquisition and that especially multiple examples support schema induction (e.g., Quilici & Mayer, 1996). However, lea... |

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Citation Context ...s to and information about their solutions”. Examplebased and schema-based strategies correspond to two mainsapproaches in cognitive science, that is the similarity-based and the rule-based approach (=-=Hahn & Chater, 1998-=-). In our task analysis we examined two strategies for solving mathematical word problems (i.e., the keyword-strategy and the situation model-strategy) by formalizing them as executable computer model... |

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Citation Context ...n may lead to the activation of those examples in memory that contain the respective keywords. These known examples will be retrieved if their activation is sufficiently high (remindings according to =-=Ross, 1989-=-) and will then be used to solve the current word problem by applying the same procedure to it that was used in order to solve the examples. • The situation model-strategy is a schema-based strategy t... |

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Citation Context ...k analysis. This can be done by using cognitive modeling as a method of task analysis, i.e., by constructing computer models to simulate a human problem-solver’s behavior based on cognitive theories (=-=Gray & Altmann, 2001-=-). Yiannis Laouris (laouris@cyber.cy.net) Cyprus Neuroscience and Technology Institute Promitheos 5, 1065 Nicosia (Cyprus) Cognitive models are characterized by a high precision that is achieved by th... |

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Citation Context ...erent problem-solving strategies (RittleJohnson & Koedinger, 2001) as well as for the derivation of instructional methods based on the theoretical assumptions which are specified in cognitive models (=-=Pirolli, 1999-=-). In the cognitive task analysis presented in this paper we examine two different problem-solving strategies applicable for solving mathematical word problems. A strategy can be characterized as a co... |

5 |
Word problems
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- 1999
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Citation Context ...ivalent test problems. These are characterized by a near transfer distance because they belong to the same problem category as the instructional examples and are embedded within the same cover story (=-=Reed, 1999-=-). In order to solve such problems by using the keyword-strategy only a very limited amount of problem-solving time and a small knowledge base, mainly containing superficial keywords, are necessary pr... |

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Citation Context ...wo strategies will be outlined according to their subgoal structures. • The keyword-strategy is an example-based strategy that uses concrete knowledge about examples when working on new problems (cf. =-=Sowder, 1988-=-). The strategy is characterized by bottom-up processing based on the mechanism of principle-cueing (Ross, 1987). The respective ACT-Rmodel starts with reading a given word problem in order to reach t... |

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- 1990
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Citation Context ...as used in order to solve the examples. • The situation model-strategy is a schema-based strategy that operates on a more abstract and elaborated knowledge base and relies on top-down processing (cf. =-=Reusser, 1990-=-). The ACT-R model of this strategy again starts with reading, but at the same time it interprets a given mathematical word problem. On basis of this interpretationprocess a situation model can be con... |