## Designing overlay multicast networks for streaming (2003)

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Venue: | In Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures |

Citations: | 18 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Andreev03designingoverlay,

author = {Konstantin Andreev and Bruce M. Maggs and Adam Meyerson and Ramesh K. Sitaraman},

title = {Designing overlay multicast networks for streaming},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures},

year = {2003},

pages = {149--158}

}

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### Abstract

In this paper we present a polynomial time approximation algorithm for designing a multicast overlay network. The algorithm finds a solution that satisfies capacity and reliability constraints to within a constant factor of optimal, and cost to within a logarithmic factor. The class of networks that our algorithm applies to includes the one used by Akamai Technologies to deliver live media streams over the Internet. In particular, we analyze networks consisting of three stages of nodes. The nodes in the first stage are the sources where live streams originate. A source forwards each of its streams to one or more nodes in the second stage, which are called reflectors. A reflector can split an incoming stream into multiple identical outgoing streams, which are then sent on to nodes in the third and final stage, which are called the sinks. As the packets in a stream travel from one stage to the next, some of them may be lost. The job of a sink is to combine the packets from multiple instances of the same stream (by reordering packets and discarding duplicates) to form a single instance of the stream with minimal loss. We assume that the loss rate between any pair of nodes in the network is known, and that losses between different pairs are independent, but discuss extensions in which some losses may be correlated.

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Citation Context ... however, suffers from the same disruptions and downstream packet loss as the multicast tree approach. Recently promising new approaches have been devolped. One of them is “End System Multicast”(E=-=SM) [3]-=-. In ESM, there is no distinction between clients, reflectors, and servers. Each host participating in the multicast may be called on to play any of these roles simultaneously in order to form a tree.... |

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Citation Context ...eruned as often as needed so that the overlay network adapts to changes in the link failure probabilities or costs. 1.4 Other Approaches One of the oldest alternative approaches is called “multicast=-=” [6]-=-. The goal of multicast is to reduce the total bandwidth consumption required to send the same stream to a large number of hosts. Instead of sending all of the data directly from one server, a multica... |

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Citation Context ...t protocols, so as a practical matter it is not possible for a server to rely on multicast alone to deliver its streams. The “mbone” (multicast backbone) network was organized to address this prob=-=lem [7]. Pa-=-rticipants in mbone have installed routers that participate in the multicast protocols. In mbone, packets are sent between multicast routers using unicast “tunnels” through routers that do not par... |

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Citation Context ...oups to be formed without any network support for routing protocols and without any other permanent infrastructure dedicated to supporting multicast. Another one is “Cooperative Networking” (CoopN=-=et) [24]-=-. CoopNet is a hybrid between a centralized system as described in our paper and a peer-to-peer system such as ESM. 1.5 Related work Our approach falls into the general class of facility location prob... |

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Citation Context ...omputer networking. The first approximation algorithm for facility location problems was given by Hochbaum [12] and improved approximatio algorithms havesbeen the subject of numerous papers including =-=[27, 9, 4, 2, 16, 29, 15, 22]. -=-Except for Hochbaum’s result, the papers described above all assume that the weights between reflectors and sinks form a metric (satisfying the symmetry and triangle inequality properties). In our p... |

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Citation Context ...omputer networking. The first approximation algorithm for facility location problems was given by Hochbaum [12] and improved approximatio algorithms havesbeen the subject of numerous papers including =-=[27, 9, 4, 2, 16, 29, 15, 22]. -=-Except for Hochbaum’s result, the papers described above all assume that the weights between reflectors and sinks form a metric (satisfying the symmetry and triangle inequality properties). In our p... |

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Citation Context ...omputer networking. The first approximation algorithm for facility location problems was given by Hochbaum [12] and improved approximatio algorithms havesbeen the subject of numerous papers including =-=[27, 9, 4, 2, 16, 29, 15, 22]. -=-Except for Hochbaum’s result, the papers described above all assume that the weights between reflectors and sinks form a metric (satisfying the symmetry and triangle inequality properties). In our p... |

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Citation Context ...ork reliability. For general networks Valiant [30] defined the term “network reliability” and proved that computing it is ♯P-complete. Karger showed an FPRAS that approximates the network reliab=-=ility [19]. -=-We consider a three-tiered network because these structures are used in practice (for example in Akamai’s data-distribution network) and because the possible dependencies between paths are greatly r... |

60 | Approximation algorithms for data placement in arbitrary networks
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Citation Context ...ommodate capacitated sets, but our problem additionally requires an assignment of both commodities to reflectors and reflectors to sinks. Similar two-level assignments have been considered previously =-=[20, 1, 23, 11]-=-, but again the earlier work assumed that the points were located in a metric space. The greedy approach may not work for multiple commodities, as the coverage no longer increases concavely as reflect... |

58 |
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Citation Context ...on the capacity and probabilities by accepting a larger constant multiplier to the cost. Our algorithm is randomized, and the randomized rounding makes use of Chernoff bounds as extended by Hoeffding =-=[13, 14]-=-. 1.7 Outline of the paper The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we formalize the problem. In Section 3 we describe the randomized rounding procedure which is the first sta... |

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Citation Context ...ommodate capacitated sets, but our problem additionally requires an assignment of both commodities to reflectors and reflectors to sinks. Similar two-level assignments have been considered previously =-=[20, 1, 23, 11]-=-, but again the earlier work assumed that the points were located in a metric space. The greedy approach may not work for multiple commodities, as the coverage no longer increases concavely as reflect... |

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Citation Context ... is more general. Our facilities are capacitated (in contrast to the set cover problem where the sets are uncapacitated). Capacitated facility location (with “hard” capacities) has been considered=-= by [25]-=-, but the local search algorithm provided depends heavily upon the use of an underlying metric space. The standard greedy approach for the set cover problem can be extended to accommodate capacitated ... |

18 |
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Citation Context ...s work in set cover and facility location, where the goal is to cover each customer with exactly one reflector. Several earlier papers have considered the problem of facility location with redundancy =-=[17, 10]-=-. Unlike our results, each of the previous papers assumes an underlying metric, and it is also assumed that the coverage provided by each facility is equivalent (whereas in our problem the coverage pr... |

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Citation Context ...ommodate capacitated sets, but our problem additionally requires an assignment of both commodities to reflectors and reflectors to sinks. Similar two-level assignments have been considered previously =-=[20, 1, 23, 11]-=-, but again the earlier work assumed that the points were located in a metric space. The greedy approach may not work for multiple commodities, as the coverage no longer increases concavely as reflect... |

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Citation Context ...s work in set cover and facility location, where the goal is to cover each customer with exactly one reflector. Several earlier papers have considered the problem of facility location with redundancy =-=[17, 10]-=-. Unlike our results, each of the previous papers assumes an underlying metric, and it is also assumed that the coverage provided by each facility is equivalent (whereas in our problem the coverage pr... |

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Citation Context ...on the capacity and probabilities by accepting a larger constant multiplier to the cost. Our algorithm is randomized, and the randomized rounding makes use of Chernoff bounds as extended by Hoeffding =-=[13, 14]-=-. 1.7 Outline of the paper The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we formalize the problem. In Section 3 we describe the randomized rounding procedure which is the first sta... |