## Understanding the Prediction Gap in Multi-hop Localization (2006)

Citations: | 2 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Whitehouse06understandingthe,

author = {Cameron Dean Whitehouse},

title = {Understanding the Prediction Gap in Multi-hop Localization},

year = {2006}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

### Citations

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Citation Context ...l predicted by the model [37]. Maximum likelihood techniques maximize the probability of the data points given the parameters [73]. Indeed, most machine learning techniques, including neural networks =-=[77]-=-, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm [73], and support vector machines [16] are all parameter estimation techniques that assume the user has already determined the general structure of the da... |

1767 |
Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice
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Citation Context ...nd so the coefficient of attenuation can be significantly higher than 2. Other more realistic models have been proposed that combine theory with empirical observation, including Nakagami and Rayleigh =-=[72]-=- fading models. Perhaps the most commonly used path loss model is the the log-normal model [72], which postulatessSignal Strength (V) 1.75 1.7 1.65 1.6 1.55 1.5 1.45 1.4 1.35 Small Error Average Signa... |

1525 | RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System
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Citation Context ...calized for every node in the network to be connected to at least three anchor nodes. An alternative to tri-lateration is called RF profiling, developed for the RADAR localization system at Microsoft =-=[5]-=-. RF profiling requires a pre-deployment stage in which the radio signal strength (RSS) of each beacon is recorded at each position in the two dimensional region to be localized. The readings taken at... |

1053 |
An Introduction to Support Vector Machines
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Citation Context ...y of the data points given the parameters [73]. Indeed, most machine learning techniques, including neural networks [77], the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm [73], and support vector machines =-=[16]-=- are all parameter estimation techniques that assume the user has already determined the general structure of the data in some parametric form. In contrast, very few formal techniques exists in the wa... |

1021 | Monte Carlo Statistical Methods
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Citation Context ...gy where each pair of nodes measures a different distance. By adding a few additional nodes, we can get multiple pairs of nodes at each distance. We generated such topologies using rejection sampling =-=[74]-=-, i.e., we generated thousands of topologies until one of them measured a uniform distribution of distances. For example, we used the topology in Figure 4.3(a), which required 25 nodes to obtain 2.5cm... |

979 | BNext century challenges: Scalable coordination in sensor networks
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Citation Context ... the effects of earthquakes, and to identify points of structural damage [44, 46]. Networks of heat-sensing nodes can be dropped from an airplane around a wildfire to identify areas of rapid movement =-=[20]-=-. Weather sensing nodes can be used for precision agriculture to monitor the light, temperature, and moisture levels at different points in a vineyard [11]. A complete sensor network application requi... |

823 | GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...radios [34, 95], and the effect of reflectors and attenuators can dominate the effect of distance on RSS, giving RSS a reputation for being extremely “noisy” and unsuitable for multi-hop localization =-=[10, 31, 87]-=-. Although projects such as RADAR have used RSS with RF profiling, most empirical studies that use RSS directly for range estimation have yielded inconclusive or negative results, even outdoors. One s... |

785 | The nesC Language: A Holistic Approach to Networked Embedded Systems
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Citation Context ...ions of the non-anchor nodes. To localize the nodes in our system, we implemented a decentralized version of the Adhoc Positioning System’s (APS) DV-distance algorithm [63] using TinyOS [55] and nesC =-=[24]-=-. DVdistance is only one of many ranging-based algorithms that have been proposed for localization, but we use it in this study because it represents a large class of algorithms that use shortest-path... |

681 | Dynamic fine-grained localization in Ad-Hoc networks of sensors
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he multi-hop localization algorithms are not playing a key role. These cases are noted in Table 2.1 with a footnote. For example, some deployments used four anchor nodes and only a single mobile node =-=[10,45,83]-=-. Other deployments used multiple nodes all within ranging distance of each other, forming a fully connected graph for localization [25, 66]. Moore [60] placed all nodes in a cell approximately the di... |

663 | Taming the underlying challenges of reliable multihop routing in sensor networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... might have a transitional region of about 2m [104]. However, several recent empirical studies have demonstrated that the transitional region can actually occupy over half of the maximum usable range =-=[23,99,101]-=-, as illustrated in Figure 6.1. Effects of the transitional region can therefore dominate certain aspects of wireless networking, changing the expected pattern of network floods, the structure of rout... |

611 | Tossim: Accurate and scalable simulation of entire tinyos applications
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...red in RAM on the nodes. Development of this system took place in several phases. First, it was debugged on a large scale using the TOSSIM simulator for TinyOS and the TinyViz visualization component =-=[54]-=-. The visualization in Figure 3.10(a) shows the system on a 10-node network, where the blue arrows indicate localization error vectors, which is the difference between the estimated position and the t... |

549 |
Mixture densities, maximum likelihood and the EM algorithm
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Citation Context ...niques are similar, but they place lower weight on points that are not well predicted by the model [37]. Maximum likelihood techniques maximize the probability of the data points given the parameters =-=[73]-=-. Indeed, most machine learning techniques, including neural networks [77], the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm [73], and support vector machines [16] are all parameter estimation techniques t... |

533 | Understanding packet delivery performance in dense wireless sensor networks
- Zhao, Govindan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alysis of the data is not provided. Other studies from the wireless networking community that characterized similar radios indicate that the assumptions of Unit Disk model of connectivity do not hold =-=[23, 101]-=-. Unlike earlier studies that use a single transmitter/receiver pair, Ganesan uses 147 different nodes in a grid formation and each node acts as both a transmitter and receiver and Zhao uses a single ... |

463 | The Anatomy of a Context-Aware Application
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se of its increased robustness, acoustic TOF has been used with more success in both single- and multi-hop localization than RSS. Many early single-hop localization systems such as AT&T’s Active Bats =-=[30]-=- and MIT’s Cricket [70] used ultrasonic TOF, as do many robotic systems including CMU’s Millibots [62] and the popular Pioneer robot series [22]. More recently, UCLA’s AHLoS [82] localization system a... |

426 | Convex Position Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks
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- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... using semi-definite programming by assuming an upper bound on the distance between two connected nodes, relying on the strict assumption that no node would underestimate the distance to another node =-=[17]-=-. In 2004, Biswas modified this algorithm by also assuming that range estimates do not overestimate the distance between two nodes [9]. Both of these algorithms were evaluated using the connectivity m... |

410 | GPS-Free Positioning in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Citation Context ...vity Bounding Box [91] ✖ – – ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Convex [17] ✔ – ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Hop-terrain [79] ✔ – ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – MDS-Map [87] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – MDS-Map(P) [86] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – GPS-free =-=[12]-=- ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – TPS [1] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Fading [7] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Bits [82] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Semidefinite [9] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anisotropic [56] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Comp... |

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Citation Context ...parameters to fit a model to a data set. For example, least squares fitting chooses the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the observed data points and predictions from the model =-=[65]-=-. Robust estimation techniques are similar, but they place lower weight on points that are not well predicted by the model [37]. Maximum likelihood techniques maximize the probability of the data poin... |

398 | Range-free localization schemes for large scale sensor networks
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- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...radios [34, 95], and the effect of reflectors and attenuators can dominate the effect of distance on RSS, giving RSS a reputation for being extremely “noisy” and unsuitable for multi-hop localization =-=[10, 31, 87]-=-. Although projects such as RADAR have used RSS with RF profiling, most empirical studies that use RSS directly for range estimation have yielded inconclusive or negative results, even outdoors. One s... |

365 |
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Citation Context ...ated position and the true position. The grey circles indicate estimated error. These simulations were scaled up to 150 nodes. Subsequently, the algorithm was programmed onto Berkeley’s Mica2Dot mote =-=[35]-=-, which consists of a ChipCon CC1000 FSK 433Mhz radio and an Atmel Atmega128 4MHz micro-controller and was equipped with the ultrasound hardware described in Section 3.1. Because development was not t... |

352 |
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Citation Context ...is a well known system that uses an expensive infrastructure of highly synchronized satellites and multi-lateration to find the position of mobile nodes on the earth’s surface using RF time of flight =-=[36]-=-. Cricket performs multi-lateration indoors using ultrasonic time of flight [70]. Besides RADAR, several systems have employed RF profiling for RSS-based localization using several different types of ... |

329 | Robust positioning algorithms for distributed ad-hoc wireless sensor networks
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Citation Context ...ging-based algorithms that have been proposed for localization, but we use it in this study because it represents a large class of algorithms that use shortest-path distance to estimate true distance =-=[80, 82, 87, 91, 92]-=-. DV-distance has also been shown to yield comparable localization error to the other distributed localization algorithms [50]. DV-distance estimates the distance between a node and an anchor to be th... |

316 | Robust distributed network localization with noisy range measurements
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Citation Context ...cessfully used the Noisy Disk model to derive the maximum likelihood solution to localization [103], lower bounds on localization error [13, 81], and specific properties about localization algorithms =-=[60]-=-. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation [1,2,4,21,42,67,84,87]. Several projects have collected empirical ultrasound data [82] or RSS data [66,90]... |

303 | Ad hoc positioning system (APS
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se parameters for sensitivity analysis by, for example, measuring localization accuracy while varying dmax from 1.1 to 2.2 times the average node spacing and σ from 0 to 50% of dmax or similar values =-=[50, 63, 79, 82]-=-.s2.3 Physical Range Sensors Any signal that changes reliably over distance can be used as a range sensor. For example, magnetic fields can be used to localize objects in three dimensions with millime... |

300 | Localization from Mere Connectivity
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...], lower bounds on localization error [13, 81], and specific properties about localization algorithms [60]. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation =-=[1,2,4,21,42,67,84,87]-=-. Several projects have collected empirical ultrasound data [82] or RSS data [66,90] to derive realistic values for the parameters dmax and σ, which are then used to simulate the behavior of various l... |

264 | Complex behavior at scale: An experimental study of low-power wireless sensor networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alysis of the data is not provided. Other studies from the wireless networking community that characterized similar radios indicate that the assumptions of Unit Disk model of connectivity do not hold =-=[23, 101]-=-. Unlike earlier studies that use a single transmitter/receiver pair, Ganesan uses 147 different nodes in a grid formation and each node acts as both a transmitter and receiver and Zhao uses a single ... |

242 | The bits and flops of the n-hop multilateration primitive for node localization problems
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lization algorithms [60]. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation [1,2,4,21,42,67,84,87]. Several projects have collected empirical ultrasound data =-=[82]-=- or RSS data [66,90] to derive realistic values for the parameters dmax and σ, which are then used to simulate the behavior of various localization algorithms. Other studies use these parameters for s... |

241 | Distributed localization in wireless sensor networks: a quantitative comparison, Computer Networks 43
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Citation Context ...se parameters for sensitivity analysis by, for example, measuring localization accuracy while varying dmax from 1.1 to 2.2 times the average node spacing and σ from 0 to 50% of dmax or similar values =-=[50, 63, 79, 82]-=-.s2.3 Physical Range Sensors Any signal that changes reliably over distance can be used as a range sensor. For example, magnetic fields can be used to localize objects in three dimensions with millime... |

235 | Localization for mobile sensor networks
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Citation Context ...processing that can be performed on a sensor node. We do not discuss ranging techniques that assume a subset of more powerful nodes, such as laser range finding techniques [32,76,100] or mobile nodes =-=[38, 93]-=-. 2.3.1 Radio Signal Strength Radio signal strength (RSS) is the power with which a radio signal is received. If the transmission power is known, RSS can be used to estimate distance based on a model ... |

219 | Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensors Network
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Citation Context ...ms [60]. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation [1,2,4,21,42,67,84,87]. Several projects have collected empirical ultrasound data [82] or RSS data =-=[66,90]-=- to derive realistic values for the parameters dmax and σ, which are then used to simulate the behavior of various localization algorithms. Other studies use these parameters for sensitivity analysis ... |

204 | Locationing in distributed ad-hoc wireless sensor networks
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Citation Context ...se parameters for sensitivity analysis by, for example, measuring localization accuracy while varying dmax from 1.1 to 2.2 times the average node spacing and σ from 0 to 50% of dmax or similar values =-=[50, 63, 79, 82]-=-.s2.3 Physical Range Sensors Any signal that changes reliably over distance can be used as a range sensor. For example, magnetic fields can be used to localize objects in three dimensions with millime... |

201 | A macroscope in the redwoods
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Citation Context ...is system architecture enables a plethora of new sensing applications. For example, humidity gradients can be measured in a forest, helping scientists identify the effects of trees on the water cycle =-=[94]-=-. Vibrations of large structures such as buildings, boats, and bridges, can be 1smonitored to understand the effects of earthquakes, and to identify points of structural damage [44, 46]. Networks of h... |

194 | Impact of radio irregularity on wireless sensor networks
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Citation Context ...ectivity. The algorithm is explicitly designed to handle non-disk like connectivity, and uses an irregular radio connectivity model which later became the basis for the Radio Irregularity Model (RIM) =-=[102]-=-. RIM is a model of radio characteristics that has been derived through a bottom-up verification process. By using the model to evaluate a localization algorithm, APIT is assuming that, because of thi... |

177 | Semide Programming for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network Localization
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Citation Context ...on that no node would underestimate the distance to another node [17]. In 2004, Biswas modified this algorithm by also assuming that range estimates do not overestimate the distance between two nodes =-=[9]-=-. Both of these algorithms were evaluated using the connectivity models that they assume. The only four algorithms that do not use Gaussian Noise in their simulations [10,17,31,79] are evaluating algo... |

176 |
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Citation Context ...fference between the observed data points and predictions from the model [65]. Robust estimation techniques are similar, but they place lower weight on points that are not well predicted by the model =-=[37]-=-. Maximum likelihood techniques maximize the probability of the data points given the parameters [73]. Indeed, most machine learning techniques, including neural networks [77], the expectation-maximiz... |

170 | Analyzing the Transition Region in Low Power Wireless Links
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Citation Context ... at short distances and nearly no connectivity at large distances, but also demonstrate the existence of a large transitional region in between, in which levels of connectivity can be highly variable =-=[104]-=-. These studies show that the transitional region can occupy over 50% of the radio range, directly contradicting the assumption of Unit Disk model that the transitional region is negligible. The reaso... |

162 | Learning Bayesian network is NP-complete
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162 |
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Citation Context ...zed satellites and multi-lateration to find the position of mobile nodes on the earth’s surface using RF time of flight [36]. Cricket performs multi-lateration indoors using ultrasonic time of flight =-=[70]-=-. Besides RADAR, several systems have employed RF profiling for RSS-based localization using several different types of radios, including 802.11 [19,29,49], VHF [15], cellular radios [84], and most re... |

161 | Robust range estimation using acoustic and multimodal sensing
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Citation Context ...✖ – – – – ✖ – – APS [63] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anchor-free [69] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Scaling [41] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – APIT [31] ✔ – ✖ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – SpotON [34] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Robust =-=[26]-=- ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – RF-tof [52] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Acoustic [78] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✖ – – Quantized [67] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ? ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Geolocation [8] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ – – Millibots [61] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖... |

137 | Enhancements to the RADAR user location and tracking system
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Citation Context ...], lower bounds on localization error [13, 81], and specific properties about localization algorithms [60]. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation =-=[1,2,4,21,42,67,84,87]-=-. Several projects have collected empirical ultrasound data [82] or RSS data [66,90] to derive realistic values for the parameters dmax and σ, which are then used to simulate the behavior of various l... |

137 | Improved mds-based localization
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Citation Context ...ussian Noise Uses Unit Disk Connectivity Bounding Box [91] ✖ – – ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Convex [17] ✔ – ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Hop-terrain [79] ✔ – ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – MDS-Map [87] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – MDS-Map(P) =-=[86]-=- ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – GPS-free [12] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – TPS [1] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Fading [7] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Bits [82] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Semidefinite [9] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anisotr... |

133 | Ranging in a Dense Multipath Environment Using an UWB Radio Link
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Citation Context ...e accurate time synchronization between multiple nodes in an open, outdoor environment. Ultra-wideband (UWB) radios have recently been demonstrated to remove both of these requirements to some degree =-=[53]-=-. By using round-trip time, participating nodes do not need to be synchronized in time, and the short duration of a UWB signal allows the line-of-sight signal to be identified from the midst of reflec... |

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Citation Context ...led distribution free models because they do not assume the data conforms to some predetermined distribution. Several forms of non-parametric models exist, the most common of which include histograms =-=[85]-=-, kernel regression [39], and wavelet analysis [43]. In this section, we show how to use statistical sampling, in which we generate data for simulation by randomly drawing measurements from an empiric... |

129 | Calibration as parameter estimation in sensor networks
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Citation Context ...n a stationary environment, RSS is subject to high levels of noise. Furthermore, individual radios can vary significantly in both transmission strength and receptivity, especially in low-power radios =-=[34, 95]-=-, and the effect of reflectors and attenuators can dominate the effect of distance on RSS, giving RSS a reputation for being extremely “noisy” and unsuitable for multi-hop localization [10, 31, 87]. A... |

123 |
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Citation Context ... to the hypothesized model. Bottom-up verification can be performed through formal statistical tests. For example, an assumption of Gaussian noise can be tested with the Jarque-Bera test of Normality =-=[6]-=-. Data that would be used for these tests is typically collected from a single transmitter and receiver pair which are placed at multiple different distances. Top-down model verification compares the ... |

122 | Motetrack: A robust, decentralized approach to rf-based location tracking
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Citation Context ...oyed RF profiling for RSS-based localization using several different types of radios, including 802.11 [19,29,49], VHF [15], cellular radios [84], and most recently low-power wireless sensor networks =-=[57]-=-. A recent study has shown that Bayesian inference can achieve similar results without pre-collecting a complete RF profile [58], although this technique does not remove the requirement of dense ancho... |

117 | Sensor Positioning in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks Using Multidimensional Scaling
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Citation Context ...– Semidefinite [9] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anisotropic [56] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Comparison [50] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – APS [63] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anchor-free [69] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Scaling =-=[41]-=- ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – APIT [31] ✔ – ✖ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – SpotON [34] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Robust [26] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – RF-tof [52] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Acoustic [78] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✖ – – Quant... |

109 | Probabilistic Kernel Regression Models
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Citation Context ...dels because they do not assume the data conforms to some predetermined distribution. Several forms of non-parametric models exist, the most common of which include histograms [85], kernel regression =-=[39]-=-, and wavelet analysis [43]. In this section, we show how to use statistical sampling, in which we generate data for simulation by randomly drawing measurements from an empirical data set. We define t... |

107 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lization algorithms and is ubiquitous in the sensor localization literature. Theoretical analyses have successfully used the Noisy Disk model to derive the maximum likelihood solution to localization =-=[103]-=-, lower bounds on localization error [13, 81], and specific properties about localization algorithms [60]. The Noisy Disk Model is most commonly used to evaluate and compare algorithms in simulation [... |

105 | Design and deployment of industrial sensor networks: experiences from a semiconductor plant and the north sea
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Citation Context ...on the water cycle [94]. Vibrations of large structures such as buildings, boats, and bridges, can be 1smonitored to understand the effects of earthquakes, and to identify points of structural damage =-=[44, 46]-=-. Networks of heat-sensing nodes can be dropped from an airplane around a wildfire to identify areas of rapid movement [20]. Weather sensing nodes can be used for precision agriculture to monitor the ... |

105 | Anchor-free distributed localization in sensor networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ✖ – – Bits [82] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Semidefinite [9] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anisotropic [56] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Comparison [50] ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – APS [63] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Anchor-free =-=[69]-=- ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – Scaling [41] ✔ ✔ 1 ✔ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – APIT [31] ✔ – ✖ ✖ – – – – ✖ – – SpotON [34] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Robust [26] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – RF-tof [52] ✖ – – ✔ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✖ – – Acou... |