## Ant Colony Optimization: A New Meta-Heuristic (1999)

Venue: | Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation |

Citations: | 55 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Dorigo99antcolony,

author = {Marco Dorigo},

title = {Ant Colony Optimization: A New Meta-Heuristic},

booktitle = {Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation},

year = {1999},

pages = {1470--1477},

publisher = {IEEE Press}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract- Recently, a number of algorithms inspired by the foraging behavior of ant colonies have been applied to the solution of difficult discrete optimization problems. In this paper we put these algorithms in a common framework by defining the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta-heuristic. A couple of paradigmatic examples of applications of these novel meta-heuristic are given, as well as a brief overview of existing applications. 1

### Citations

905 | Ant System, optimization by a colony of cooperating agents
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Citation Context ...ntroduction In the early nineties an algorithm called ant system was proposed as a novel heuristic approach for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems (Dorigo et al., 1991; Dorigo, 1992; =-=Dorigo et al., 1996-=-). Ant system (AS), which was first applied to the traveling salesman problem, was recently extended and/or modified both to improve its performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Imp... |

706 | Ant Colony System: A cooperative learning approach to the Traveling Salesman Problem
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Citation Context ...ng salesman problem, was recently extended and/or modified both to improve its performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Improved versions of AS include, among others, ACS (Dorigo & =-=Gambardella, 1997-=-), MAX --MIN Ant System (St utzle & Hoos, 1998b), and AS rank (Bullnheimer et al., 1997b). All these algorithms have been applied to the TSP with varying degree of success, but always improving over A... |

492 |
Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. Athena Scientific
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Citation Context ...n general, it is important to note that they are an interesting approach only for those shortest path problems to which more classical algorithms like dynamic programming or label correcting methods (=-=Bertsekas, 1995-=-) cannot be efficiently applied. This is the case, for example, for the following types of shortest path problems: . NP-hard problems, for which the dimension of the full state-space graph is exponent... |

360 | Ant algorithms for discrete optimization - Dorigo, Caro, et al. - 1999 |

328 |
The Traveling Salesman Problem
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Citation Context ...wing ones: (i) it is relatively easy to adapt the ant colony metaphor to it, (ii) it is a very difficult problem (NP-hard), (iii) it is one of the most studied problems in combinatorial optimization (=-=Lawler et al., 1985-=-; Reinelt, 1994), and (iv) it is very easy to state and explain it, so that the algorithm behavior is not obscured by too many technicalities. In the following we will present Ant System, a paradigmat... |

285 |
The Travelling Salesman Problem: A case study in local optimization by
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Citation Context ...o that obtainable by more sophisticated methods. More research will be necessary to assess whether ACO algorithms can reach the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms like Iterated Lin-Kernighan (=-=Johnson & McGeoch, 1997-=-). As in the TSP case, the first application of an ACO algorithm to the QAP has been that of Ant System (Maniezzo et al., 1994). In the last two years several ACO algorithms for the QAP have been pres... |

275 |
Computer solutions of the traveling salesman problem
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Citation Context ...re performed. The triggering of pheromone evaporation happens after all ants have completed their tours. Of course, it would be easy to add a local optimization daemon action, like a 3-opt procedure (=-=Lin, 1965-=-); this has been done in most of the ACO algorithms for the TSP that have been developed as extensions of AS (see for example (Dorigo & Gambardella, 1997; St utzle & Hoos, 1998a)). The amount of phero... |

272 | AntNet: Distributed Stigmergetic Control for Communication Networks - Caro, Dorigo - 1998 |

174 | Ants for load balancing in telecommunications networks
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Citation Context ...re quadratic assignment (Maniezzo et al., 1994; St utzle & Hoos, 1998a), vehicle routing (Bullnheimer et al., 1997a; Gambardella et al., 1999), connection oriented and connectionless network routing (=-=Schoonderwoerd et al., 1996-=-; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998), sequential ordering (Gambardella & Dorigo, 1997), graph coloring (Costa & Hertz, 1997), shortest common supersequence (Michel & Middendorf, 1998), si... |

135 | The ant System applied to the quadratic assignment problem
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Citation Context ...t application of an ACO algorithm to the QAP has been that of Ant System (Maniezzo et al., 1994). In the last two years several ACO algorithms for the QAP have been presented by Maniezzo and Colorni (=-=Maniezzo & Colorni, 1999-=-, in press), Maniezzo (Maniezzo, 1998), and Stützle (Stützle & Hoos, 1998a). Currently, ACO algorithms are among the best heuristics for attacking reallife QAP instances 3 . We refer to (Stützle & Dor... |

133 | MACS-VRPTW: A multiple ant colony system for vehicle routing problems with time windows
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nal AS, have also been applied to a diverse set of optimization problems. Examples are quadratic assignment (Maniezzo et al., 1994; Stützle & Hoos, 1998a), vehicle routing (Bullnheimer et al., 1997a; =-=Gambardella et al., 1999-=-), connection oriented and connectionless network routing (Schoonderwoerd et al., 1996; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998), sequential ordering (Gambardella & Dorigo, 1997), graph colorin... |

119 |
Ants can colour graphs
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...connection oriented and connectionless network routing (Schoonderwoerd et al., 1996; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998), sequential ordering (Gambardella & Dorigo, 1997), graph coloring (=-=Costa & Hertz, 1997-=-), shortest common supersequence (Michel & Middendorf, 1998), single machine tardiness (Bauer et al., 1999), multiple knapsack (Leguizamón & Michalewicz, 1999), etc. For many of these problems, the re... |

96 | An improved ant System algorithm for the vehicle routing problem
- Bullnheimer, Haïti, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Improved versions of AS include, among others, ACS (Dorigo & Gambardella, 1997), MAX –MIN Ant System (Stützle & Hoos, 1998b), and ASrank (=-=Bullnheimer et al., 1997-=-b). All these algorithms have been applied to the TSP with varying degree of success, but always improving over AS performance. These improved versions, as well as the original AS, have also been appl... |

93 |
Ant System for Job-Shop Scheduling
- Colorni, Dorigo, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...7). They obtained excellent results and were able to improve the best known solutions for many benchmark instances. A first application of AS to the job-shop scheduling problem has been presented in (=-=Colorni et al., 1994-=-). Despite showing the viability of the approach, the computational results are not competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms. More recently, MMAS has been applied to the flow shop scheduling probl... |

78 |
Learning and Natural Algorithms (in Italian). Ph.D thesis, Dipartamento di Elettronica, Politecnico di
- Dorigo
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lications. 1 Introduction In the early nineties an algorithm called ant system was proposed as a novel heuristic approach for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems (Dorigo et al., 1991; =-=Dorigo, 1992-=-; Dorigo et al., 1996). Ant system (AS), which was first applied to the traveling salesman problem, was recently extended and/or modified both to improve its performance and to apply it to other optim... |

58 | ACO algorithms for the quadratic assignment problem
- Stützle, Dorigo
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roblems using ACO algorithms are the traveling salesman problem and the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Results obtained by the application of ACO algorithms to the TSP are very encouraging (see (=-=Stützle & Dorigo, 1999-=-b) for an overview of applications of ACO algorithms to the TSP): they are often better than those obtained using other general purpose heuristics like evolutionary computation or simulated annealing.... |

54 | Ant colonies for the QAP
- Gambardella, Taillard, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sed an extension of AS to assignment type problems and present an application of their approach to the graph coloring prob3 Another very good algorithm inspired by the ant colony metaphor is HAS-QAP (=-=Gambardella et al., 1997-=-). It is not listed with the others above because it doesn’t follow the ACO meta-heuristic.slem obtaining results comparable to those obtained by other heuristic approaches. An application of AS rank ... |

52 | Exact and approximate nondeterministic tree-search procedures for the quadratic assignment problem
- Maniezzo
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s been that of Ant System (Maniezzo et al., 1994). In the last two years several ACO algorithms for the QAP have been presented by Maniezzo and Colorni (Maniezzo & Colorni, 1999, in press), Maniezzo (=-=Maniezzo, 1998-=-), and St utzle (St utzle & Hoos, 1998a). Currently, ACO algorithms are among the best heuristics for attacking reallife QAP instances 3 . We refer to (St utzle & Dorigo, 1999a) for an overview of the... |

48 | ACO algorithms for the traveling salesman problem,” In: Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering and Computer
- Stützle, Dorigo
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roblems using ACO algorithms are the traveling salesman problem and the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Results obtained by the application of ACO algorithms to the TSP are very encouraging (see (=-=Stützle & Dorigo, 1999-=-b) for an overview of applications of ACO algorithms to the TSP): they are often better than those obtained using other general purpose heuristics like evolutionary computation or simulated annealing.... |

46 | HAS-SOP: Hybrid ant system for the sequential ordering problem
- Gambardella, Dorigo
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng salesman problem, was recently extended and/or modified both to improve its performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Improved versions of AS include, among others, ACS (Dorigo & =-=Gambardella, 1997-=-), MAX --MIN Ant System (St utzle & Hoos, 1998b), and AS rank (Bullnheimer et al., 1997b). All these algorithms have been applied to the TSP with varying degree of success, but always improving over A... |

45 |
C.Strauss A new rank-based version of the Ant System: A computational study
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Improved versions of AS include, among others, ACS (Dorigo & Gambardella, 1997), MAX –MIN Ant System (Stützle & Hoos, 1998b), and ASrank (=-=Bullnheimer et al., 1997-=-b). All these algorithms have been applied to the TSP with varying degree of success, but always improving over AS performance. These improved versions, as well as the original AS, have also been appl... |

38 | Two ant colony algorithms for best-effort routing in datagram networks - Caro, Dorigo - 1998 |

37 | MAX-MIN Ant System and local search for combinatorial optimization problems
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ded andor modified both to improve its performance and to apply it to other optimization problems. Improved versions of AS include, among others, ACS (Dorigo & Gambardella, 1997), MAX-MZN Ant System (=-=Stutzle & Hoos, 1998-=-b), and Asrank (Bullnheimer et al., 1997b). All these algorithms have been applied to the TSP with varying degree of success, but always improving over AS performance. These improved versions, as well... |

30 | Parallelization Strategies for Ant Colony Optimization
- Stützle
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...owing the viability of the approach, the computational results are not competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms. More recently, MMAS has been applied to the flow shop scheduling problem (FSP) in (=-=Stützle, 1998-=-). The computational results have shown that MMAS outperforms earlier proposed Simulated Annealing algorithms, while it performs comparably to Tabu Search. Another very recent application is that to t... |

29 |
A new version of ant system for subset problems
- Leguizamon, Michalewicz
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dering (Gambardella & Dorigo, 1997), graph coloring (Costa & Hertz, 1997), shortest common supersequence (Michel & Middendorf, 1998), single machine tardiness (Bauer et al., 1999), multiple knapsack (=-=Leguizamón & Michalewicz, 1999-=-), etc. For many of these problems, the results obtained place the ant system based approaches among the best available heuristics. In this paper we present the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta-heur... |

21 |
island model based ant system with lookaheadfor the shortest supersequence problem
- Michel, Middendorf
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g (Schoonderwoerd et al., 1996; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998; Di Caro & Dorigo, 1998), sequential ordering (Gambardella & Dorigo, 1997), graph coloring (Costa & Hertz, 1997), shortest common supersequence (=-=Michel & Middendorf, 1998-=-), single machine tardiness (Bauer et al., 1999), multiple knapsack (Leguizamón & Michalewicz, 1999), etc. For many of these problems, the results obtained place the ant system based approaches among ... |

20 |
The traveling salesman problem: computational solutions for TSP applications
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...relatively easy to adapt the ant colony metaphor to it, (ii) it is a very difficult problem (NP-hard), (iii) it is one of the most studied problems in combinatorial optimization (Lawler et al., 1985; =-=Reinelt, 1994-=-), and (iv) it is very easy to state and explain it, so that the algorithm behavior is not obscured by too many technicalities. In the following we will present Ant System, a paradigmatic example of h... |

15 | Adaptive approach heuristics for the generalized assignment problem
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lgorithm based on the island model typical of many parallel genetic algorithms implementations. MMAS has recently been applied to the generalized assignment problem by Ramalhinho Lourençou and Serra (=-=Lourenço & Serra, 1998-=-), obtaining very promising computational results. In particular, their algorithm is shown to find optimal and near optimal solutions faster than a GRASP algorithm which was used for comparison. Anoth... |

12 |
Positive feedback as a search strategy, Tech. Rep. 91016, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di
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Citation Context ...rview of existing applications. 1 Introduction In the early nineties an algorithm called ant system was proposed as a novel heuristic approach for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems (=-=Dorigo et al., 1991-=-; Dorigo, 1992; Dorigo et al., 1996). Ant system (AS), which was first applied to the traveling salesman problem, was recently extended and/or modified both to improve its performance and to apply it ... |

8 | An ACO algorithm for the shortest common supersequence problem
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Citation Context ..., and Agazzi to vehicle routing problems with time windows improves the best known solutions for some benchmark instances (Gambardella et al., 1999). Michel and Middendorf (Michel & Middendorf, 1998; =-=Michel & Middendorf, 1999-=-) have proposed an application of AS to the shortest common supersequence. They introduce the use of a lookahead function during the solution construction by the ants. They also present a parallel ver... |

8 | Ant system and local search for combinatorial optimization problems - –MIN - 1998 |

2 | MACS-VRPTW: AMultiple Ant Colony System for Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows - Gambardella, Taillard - 1999 |

1 | Ant Algorithms for Discrete Optimization. Tech. rept. IRIDIA/98-10. Universit e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Accepted for publication in Artificial Life - Dorigo, Caro - 1998 |

1 | A New Version of Ant System for Subset Problems - on - 1999 |

1 |
Parallelization Strategies for Ant Colony Optimization. Pages 722--731 of
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Citation Context ...ng the viability of the approach, the computational results are not competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms. More recently, MMAS has been applied to the flow shop scheduling problem (FSP) in (St =-=utzle, 1998-=-). The computational results have shown that MMAS outperforms earlier proposed Simulated Annealing algorithms, while it performs comparably to Tabu Search. Another very recent application is that to t... |

1 | ACO Algorithms for the Quadratic Assignment Problem - utzle - 1999 |

1 | ACO Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem. In - utzle - 1999 |

1 | A New Version of Ant System for Subset Problems - Leguizambn - 1999 |