## Efficient DES key search (1994)

Venue: | School of Computer Science, Carleton University |

Citations: | 73 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Wiener94efficientdes,

author = {Michael J. Wiener},

title = {Efficient DES key search},

institution = {School of Computer Science, Carleton University},

year = {1994}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. Despite recent improvements in analytic techniques for attacking the Data Encryption Standard (DES), exhaustive key search remains the most practical and efficient attack. Key search is becoming alarmingly practical. We show how to build an exhaustive DES key search machine for $1 million that can find a key in 3.5 hours on average. The design for such a machine is described in detail for the purpose of assessing the resistance of DES to an exhaustive attack. This design is based on mature technology to avoid making guesses about future capabilities. With this approach, DES keys can be found one to two orders of magnitude faster than other recently proposed designs. The basic machine design can be adapted to attack the standard DES modes of operation for a small penalty in running time. The issues of development cost and machine reliability are examined as well. In light of this work, it would be prudent in many applications to use DES in a triple-encryption mode. 1.

### Citations

544 | Differential Cryptanalysis of DES-like Cryptosystems
- Biham, Shamir
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...key search [7, 8, 10, 15]. In recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts =-=[1, 2]. Matsui's-=- "linear cryptanalysis" can find DES keys given 2 47 known plaintexts [12]. However, unless these attacks are improved greatly to lower the number of plaintexts required, they will be of onl... |

453 |
Linear Cryptanalysis Method for DES Cipher,” Eurocrypt
- Matsui
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts [1, 2]. Matsui's "linear cryptanalysis" can find DES keys given 2 47 known p=-=laintexts [12]-=-. However, unless these attacks are improved greatly to lower the number of plaintexts required, they will be of only theoretical interest. For now, the most practical and economical way to attack DES... |

93 | Differential Cryptanalysis of the Full 16-Round
- Biham, Shamir
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...key search [7, 8, 10, 15]. In recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts =-=[1, 2]. Matsui's-=- "linear cryptanalysis" can find DES keys given 2 47 known plaintexts [12]. However, unless these attacks are improved greatly to lower the number of plaintexts required, they will be of onl... |

75 |
Exhaustive cryptanalysis of the NBS data encryption standard," Computer
- Di±e, Hellman
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o argued that it was feasible to build a machine that could attack DES by exhaustively searching through all 2 56 DES keys, and that the cost of building this machine would decrease rapidly with time =-=[6]-=-. Since then, several attempts have been made to assess the cost and time required for exhaustive key search [7, 8, 10, 15]. In recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham a... |

47 |
Exhaustive Cryptanalysis of the NBS
- Diffie, Hellman
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o argued that it was feasible to build a machine that could attack DES by exhaustively searching through all 2 56 DES keys, and that the cost of building this machine would decrease rapidly with time =-=[6]-=-. Since then, several attempts have been made to assess the cost and time required for exhaustive key search [7, 8, 10, 15]. In recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham a... |

36 | A high-speed des implementation for network applications
- Eberle
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 DES keys, and that the cost of building this machine would decrease rapidly with time [6]. Since then, several attempts have been made to assess the cost and time required for exhaustive key search =-=[7, 8, 10, 15]. In -=-recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts [1, 2]. Matsui's "linear ... |

34 | A known-plaintext attack on two-key triple encryption
- Oorschot, Wiener
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... single-DES. If all keys are made equal, then triple-DES collapses to single-DES. The two-key version of triple-DES was estimated to be 10 13 times stronger than single-DES by van Oorschot and Wiener =-=[14]-=-. The three-key version is even stronger. In cases where security must be improved for a large installed base of equipment using DES, it is likely to be much less costly to switch to triple-DES than i... |

22 | DES is not a Group - Campbell, Wiener - 1993 |

14 | Is the Data Encryption Standard a Group? (Results of Cycling Experiments on DES - Jr, Rivest, et al. - 1988 |

13 |
watch : an examination of the sufficiency of the data encryption standard for financial institution security
- Garon, Outerbridge, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 DES keys, and that the cost of building this machine would decrease rapidly with time [6]. Since then, several attempts have been made to assess the cost and time required for exhaustive key search =-=[7, 8, 10, 15]. In -=-recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts [1, 2]. Matsui's "linear ... |

11 |
Efficient Hardware Implementation of the DES
- Hoornaert, Goubert, et al.
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 DES keys, and that the cost of building this machine would decrease rapidly with time [6]. Since then, several attempts have been made to assess the cost and time required for exhaustive key search =-=[7, 8, 10, 15]. In -=-recent years, analytic techniques have been found to attack DES. Biham and Shamir's differential cryptanalysis can be used to find a DES key given 2 47 chosen plaintexts [1, 2]. Matsui's "linear ... |

2 | DES will be totally insecure within 10 years - Hellman - 1979 |