## Black box checking (1999)

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Venue: | In FORTE/PSTV |

Citations: | 41 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Vardi99blackbox,

author = {Moshe Y. Vardi},

title = {Black box checking},

booktitle = {In FORTE/PSTV},

year = {1999},

pages = {225--240},

publisher = {Kluwer}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Even if access to the internal structure of the tested system is possible, it is not always a good idea to use it when performing tests, as this may lead to a bias in the testing process. Furthermore, the

### Citations

2408 | Model Checking
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- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oach that can detect errors in the implementation before completing an exhaustive search. Keywords: Formal methods, Model checking, Specification, Testing, Verification. 1 INTRODUCTION Model checking =-=[5]-=- and testing [16] are two complementary approaches for enhancing the reliability of systems. Model checking usually deals with checking whether the design of a finite state system satisfies some prope... |

1261 | The model checker spin
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Citation Context ...ords, usually a Buchi automaton [3]. Then, both the system and (the complement of) the checked property are represented using automata. An example of a system that is based on such principles is Spin =-=[8, 10]-=-, where the specification is given by an automaton called a never claim that recognizes the bad (or disallowed) computations. In order to check whether the system under consideration satisfies the che... |

1204 |
The temporal logic of programs
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Citation Context ... sequence accepted by both P and B. The automaton P accepts the bad computations, i.e., those that are not allowed. Thus, if the property is given originally e.g., using a linear temporal logic (LTL) =-=[17]-=- property ', then P is the automaton corresponding to :'. For an efficient translation from LTL to automata, see e.g., [6]. The following simple theorem demonstrates that the current problem is at lea... |

618 |
The Art of Software Testing
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Citation Context ...tect errors in the implementation before completing an exhaustive search. Keywords: Formal methods, Model checking, Specification, Testing, Verification. 1 INTRODUCTION Model checking [5] and testing =-=[16]-=- are two complementary approaches for enhancing the reliability of systems. Model checking usually deals with checking whether the design of a finite state system satisfies some properties (e.g., mutu... |

585 |
An automata-theoretic approach to automatic program verification
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Citation Context ...nning the algorithms to the extent that the available time and space resources allow; the guarantees in this case depend on the time spent. Following the automata-theoretic approach to model-checking =-=[12, 23]-=-, the (negation of the) checked property is directly given as, or translated into, a finite automaton on infinite words, usually a Buchi automaton [3]. Then, both the system and (the complement of) th... |

506 |
Learning regular sets from queries and counterexamples
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Citation Context ...he problem of learning finite automata (i.e. machine identification) with the help of a teacher. Efficient algorithms for learning different types of automata in this framework have been developed in =-=[2, 14, 19]-=-. 2 PRELIMINARIES AUTOMATA THEORETIC MODEL-CHECKING A Buchi automaton is a quintuple (S; S 0 ; \Sigma; ffi; F ), where S is a finite set of states, S 0 ` S are the initial states, \Sigma is the finite... |

414 |
Computer-Aided Verification of Coordinating Processes
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Citation Context ...nning the algorithms to the extent that the available time and space resources allow; the guarantees in this case depend on the time spent. Following the automata-theoretic approach to model-checking =-=[12, 23]-=-, the (negation of the) checked property is directly given as, or translated into, a finite automaton on infinite words, usually a Buchi automaton [3]. Then, both the system and (the complement of) th... |

371 | Model Checking for Programming Languages using VeriSoft
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Citation Context ...mber of software tools. Most tools check properties of finite state models expressed in some formal notation. One tool that is directed at the checking of software systems without a model is VeriSoft =-=[7]-=-: it is aimed at checking state invariants (assertions) of communicating processes, using partial order reduction methods for space exploration. For a recent book on model checking see [5]. The study ... |

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On a decision method in restricted second order arithmatic. In Proceeding of the 1960 international Congress on Logic, Methodology. and Philosophy of Science
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Citation Context ...utomata-theoretic approach to model-checking [12, 23], the (negation of the) checked property is directly given as, or translated into, a finite automaton on infinite words, usually a Buchi automaton =-=[3]-=-. Then, both the system and (the complement of) the checked property are represented using automata. An example of a system that is based on such principles is Spin [8, 10], where the specification is... |

334 |
On the Synthesis of a Reactive Module
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Citation Context ...gainst a deterministic environment, representing a degenerate version of a 8- player. (This should be contrasted with games against an adversarial environment, used, for example, in program synthesis =-=[19]-=-.) Each such game consists of a nondeterministic machine with finitely many configurations1 C, containing the following disjoint subsets: Ci are the initial configurations, W + and W \Gammasare the po... |

282 |
Switching and Finite Automata Theory
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- 1978
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Citation Context ... the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and methods. Early surveys of the work in the 50's and 60's can be found in e.g., =-=[11, 22]-=-, and surveys of the more recent results and related work on protocol testing can be found in [13, 20]. Finally, there is substantial work in the learning community on the problem of learning finite a... |

268 | Simple on-the-fly automatic verification of linear temporal logic
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- 1995
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Citation Context ...f the property is given originally e.g., using a linear temporal logic (LTL) [17] property ', then P is the automaton corresponding to :'. For an efficient translation from LTL to automata, see e.g., =-=[6]-=-. The following simple theorem demonstrates that the current problem is at least exponential in time in the size of the automaton B. Theorem 2 The deterministic time complexity of black box checking i... |

245 | Principles and methods of testing finite state machines-a survey
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- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... testing models and methods. Early surveys of the work in the 50's and 60's can be found in e.g., [11, 22], and surveys of the more recent results and related work on protocol testing can be found in =-=[13, 20]-=-. Finally, there is substantial work in the learning community on the problem of learning finite automata (i.e. machine identification) with the help of a teacher. Efficient algorithms for learning di... |

173 |
Testing Software Design Modeled by Finite-State Machines
- Chow
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... lengths of the tests needed, as well as efficient algorithms that check for conformance for different types of automata (machines with a distinguishing sequence or with reset, or in general without) =-=[4, 9, 24, 25]-=-. In the last 15 years, there has been a lot of work on conformance testing in the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and ... |

172 | Inference of finite automata using homing sequences. Machine Learning: From Theory to Applications
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- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he problem of learning finite automata (i.e. machine identification) with the help of a teacher. Efficient algorithms for learning different types of automata in this framework have been developed in =-=[2, 14, 19]-=-. 2 PRELIMINARIES AUTOMATA THEORETIC MODEL-CHECKING A Buchi automaton is a quintuple (S; S 0 ; \Sigma; ffi; F ), where S is a finite set of states, S 0 ` S are the initial states, \Sigma is the finite... |

81 |
Formal methods for protocol testing: a detailed study
- Sidhu, Leung
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... testing models and methods. Early surveys of the work in the 50's and 60's can be found in e.g., [11, 22], and surveys of the more recent results and related work on protocol testing can be found in =-=[13, 20]-=-. Finally, there is substantial work in the learning community on the problem of learning finite automata (i.e. machine identification) with the help of a teacher. Efficient algorithms for learning di... |

80 |
Finite Automata: Behavior and Synthesis
- Trakhtenbrot, Barzdin
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and methods. Early surveys of the work in the 50's and 60's can be found in e.g., =-=[11, 22]-=-, and surveys of the more recent results and related work on protocol testing can be found in [13, 20]. Finally, there is substantial work in the learning community on the problem of learning finite a... |

68 |
The complexity of two-player games of incomplete information
- Reif
- 1984
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Citation Context ...m the beginning of the computation. Here, part of the input is hidden, and its structure is studied through experiments. The relevant computational model is related to games of incomplete information =-=[1, 18]-=-, where an 9-player plays against a deterministic environment (representing a degenerate version of a 8-player). Each such game consists of a nondeterministic machine with finitely many configurations... |

67 |
Fault-Detecting Experiments for Sequential Circuits
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Citation Context ... lengths of the tests needed, as well as efficient algorithms that check for conformance for different types of automata (machines with a distinguishing sequence or with reset, or in general without) =-=[4, 9, 24, 25]-=-. In the last 15 years, there has been a lot of work on conformance testing in the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and ... |

65 |
Automata on infinite objects, in: Handbook of Theoretical
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Citation Context ...generates a word accepted also by the specification automaton P , namely if L(M i ) " L(P ) 6= ;. If the intersection is not empty, it must contain an ultimately periodic word of the form oe 1 oe=-= ! 2 [21]. We -=-input reset oe 1 oe n+1 2 to the black box B. If this experiment succeeds, then there is an error as L(B) " L(P ) contains oe 1 oe ! 2 and thus is not empty. If it fails, then this gives a counte... |

55 | The state of spin
- Holzmann, Peled
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ords, usually a Buchi automaton [3]. Then, both the system and (the complement of) the checked property are represented using automata. An example of a system that is based on such principles is Spin =-=[8, 10]-=-, where the specification is given by an automaton called a never claim that recognizes the bad (or disallowed) computations. In order to check whether the system under consideration satisfies the che... |

54 |
Gedanken experiments on sequential machines, in: Automata Studies
- Moore
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s, using partial order reduction methods for space exploration. For a recent book on model checking see [5]. The study of testing black box automata was initiated in Moore's classical paper from 1956 =-=[15]-=-, where he defined and studied several problems including the machine identification problem (infer the state transition diagram of an unknown black box automaton) . He also posed the fault detection ... |

36 | Distinguishing tests for nondeterministic and probabilistic machines
- Courcoubetis, C, et al.
- 1995
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Citation Context ...m the beginning of the computation. Here, part of the input is hidden, and its structure is studied through experiments. The relevant computational model is related to games of incomplete information =-=[1, 18]-=-, where an 9-player plays against a deterministic environment (representing a degenerate version of a 8-player). Each such game consists of a nondeterministic machine with finitely many configurations... |

27 |
Testing Finite State Machines: Fault Detection
- Yannakakis, Lee
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... lengths of the tests needed, as well as efficient algorithms that check for conformance for different types of automata (machines with a distinguishing sequence or with reset, or in general without) =-=[4, 9, 24, 25]-=-. In the last 15 years, there has been a lot of work on conformance testing in the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and ... |

21 |
Failure Diagnosis of Automata
- Vasilevskii
- 1973
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Citation Context |

11 | On the learnability of infinitary regular sets
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- 1995
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Citation Context ...he problem of learning finite automata (i.e. machine identification) with the help of a teacher. Efficient algorithms for learning different types of automata in this framework have been developed in =-=[2, 14, 19]-=-. 2 PRELIMINARIES AUTOMATA THEORETIC MODEL-CHECKING A Buchi automaton is a quintuple (S; S 0 ; \Sigma; ffi; F ), where S is a finite set of states, S 0 ` S are the initial states, \Sigma is the finite... |

3 |
Failure diagnosis of automata, Kibertetika, no 4
- Vasilevskii
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... lengths of the tests needed, as well as efficient algorithms that check for conformance for different types of automata (machines with a distinguishing sequence or with reset, or in general without) =-=[4, 9, 25, 26]-=-. In the last 15 years, there has been a lot of work on conformance testing in the protocols community, with a large number of papers, many of them based on the black box automaton testing models and ... |