## HOL-OCL: Experiences, Consequences and Design Choices (2002)

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Venue: | UML 2002: MODEL ENGINEERING, CONCEPTS AND TOOLS, NUMBER 2460 IN LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE |

Citations: | 16 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Brucker02hol-ocl:experiences,,

author = {Achim D. Brucker and Burkhart Wolff},

title = {HOL-OCL: Experiences, Consequences and Design Choices},

booktitle = {UML 2002: MODEL ENGINEERING, CONCEPTS AND TOOLS, NUMBER 2460 IN LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE},

year = {2002},

pages = {196--211},

publisher = {Springer}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Based on experiences gained from an embedding of the Object Constraint Language (OCL) in higher-order logic [1], we explore several key issues of the design of a formal semantics of the OCL. These issues comprise the question of the interpretation of invariants, pre- and postconditions, an executable sub-language and the possibilities of refinement notions. A particular emphasize is put on the issue of mechanized deduction in UML/OCL specification.

### Citations

868 |
A Formulation of the Simple Theory of Types
- Church
- 1941
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[1]. In contrast to traditional paper-and-pencil-work in defining the semantics of a language, a theorem prover based formalization inside a powerful logical language such as higher-order logic (HOL) =-=[7, 8]-=- offers a number of advantages: First of all, the consistency of an embedded logic, if based on conservative extensions, can be guaranteed. Second, as already pointed out in [9], the use of a theorem ... |

670 |
Systematic Software Development using VDM
- Jones
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ect Constraint Language (OCL) [2, 3, 4] is part of the UML, the de-facto standard of object-oriented modeling. Being in the tradition of data-oriented formal specification languages like Z [5] or VDM =-=[6]-=-, OCL is designed to make UML diagrams more expressive. In short, OCL is a three-valued Kleene logic with equality that allows for specifying constraints on graphs of object instances. There is a need... |

316 |
An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory: To Truth Through Proof
- Andrews
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[1]. In contrast to traditional paper-and-pencil-work in defining the semantics of a language, a theorem prover based formalization inside a powerful logical language such as higher-order logic (HOL) =-=[7, 8]-=- offers a number of advantages: First of all, the consistency of an embedded logic, if based on conservative extensions, can be guaranteed. Second, as already pointed out in [9], the use of a theorem ... |

248 |
The Formal Semantics of Programming Languages
- Winskel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olff with the consequence: first(X, ⊥) = ⊥ and second(⊥, Y ) = ⊥ Alternatively, tuples may be defined as: with the natural consequence: (⊥, X) ̸= (Y , ⊥) ̸= ⊥ first(X, ⊥) = X and second(⊥, Y ) = Y In =-=[19, 20]-=-, the former is called “smashed product”, while the latter is the standard product. We also apply this terminology for sets, bags and sequences and suggest the use of smashed collection types and stri... |

160 | Denotational semantics - Mosses - 1990 |

149 |
Naive Set Theory, D
- Halmos
- 1960
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has been based on a “parameterized semantics” approach, i.e. the semantic function is parameterized by an arbitrary, but fixed diagram C, and its definition is based on naive set theoretic reasoning =-=[18]-=-. Even if one is not too much concerned about the foundational problems with this approach, we argue that parametric semantics does not cover the most important aspect of object-orientation: reuseabil... |

106 |
Introduction to HOL
- Gordon, Melham
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es new constants (via constant definitions) and types (type definitions) only via a particular schema of axioms; the (meta-level) proof that axioms of this schema preserve consistency can be found in =-=[16]-=-. For example, a constant definition introduces a “fresh” constant symbol and a non-recursive equality axiom with the new constant at the left hand side, while the right-hand side is a closed expressi... |

68 | On formalizing the UML object constraint language OCL
- Richters, Gogolla
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ML [11], CSP [12],or Z [13]. In this document, we summarize experiences and consequences of our formalization, including answers on questions raised in previous research on the precise meaning of OCL =-=[14, 15, 4]-=-: the issue of partial and total correctness, the role of exceptions, the precise meaning of invariants, the option for recursive query methods and executability of OCL, and its potential for formal r... |

40 |
µJava: Embedding a programming language in a theorem prover
- Nipkow, Oheimb, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be used to study symbolic evaluation and thus prototypical tool development. For all these reasons, the embedding approach has been successfully applied for a number of “real” languages such as Java =-=[10, 9]-=-, ML [11], CSP [12],or Z [13]. In this document, we summarize experiences and consequences of our formalization, including answers on questions raised in previous research on the precise meaning of OC... |

34 | A Structure Preserving Encoding of Z in Isabelle/HOL
- Kolyang, Santen, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation and thus prototypical tool development. For all these reasons, the embedding approach has been successfully applied for a number of “real” languages such as Java [10, 9], ML [11], CSP [12],or Z =-=[13]-=-. In this document, we summarize experiences and consequences of our formalization, including answers on questions raised in previous research on the precise meaning of OCL [14, 15, 4]: the issue of p... |

32 | The Z notation: a reference manual, 2nd edn - Spivey - 1992 |

24 | The Amsterdam Manifesto on OCL
- Cook, Kleppe, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...statements, etc.). – It could be “undefined”, i.e. ⊥L . This is consistent with the least fixpoint in the theory of complete partial orderings (cpo; c.f. [20]). This idea has already been proposed by =-=[24]-=-. The theory of cpo’s is a strict extension of semantic domains with undefinedness and yields a least-fixpoint operator, which gives semantics on recursive equations of methods. This enables method im... |

23 | A Proposal for a Formal OCL Semantics in Isabelle/HOL
- Brucker, Wolff
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...@informatik.uni-freiburg.de http://www.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/~{brucker,wolff} Abstract Based on experiences gained from an embedding of the Object Constraint Language (OCL) in higher-order logic =-=[1]-=-, we explore several key issues of the design of a formal semantics of the OCL. These issues comprise the question of the interpretation of invariants, pre- and postconditions, an executable sub-langu... |

22 | A corrected failure-divergence model for CSP in Isabelle/HOL
- Tej, Wolff
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olic evaluation and thus prototypical tool development. For all these reasons, the embedding approach has been successfully applied for a number of “real” languages such as Java [10, 9], ML [11], CSP =-=[12]-=-,or Z [13]. In this document, we summarize experiences and consequences of our formalization, including answers on questions raised in previous research on the precise meaning of OCL [14, 15, 4]: the ... |

21 | Hoare logic for NanoJava: auxiliary variables, side effects and virtual methods revisited
- Oheimb, Nipkow
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r-order logic (HOL) [7, 8] offers a number of advantages: First of all, the consistency of an embedded logic, if based on conservative extensions, can be guaranteed. Second, as already pointed out in =-=[9]-=-, the use of a theorem prover works as Occam’s razor in a formalization since machine-checked proofs enforce “a no-frills approach and often leads to unexpected simplifications”. Third, incremental ch... |

14 | Java: Embedding a programming language in a theorem prover - Nipkow, Oheimb, et al. - 2000 |

13 | A structure preserving encoding of Z in Isabelle /HOL - Kolyang, Wolff - 1996 |

12 | On the precise Meaning of OCL Constraints
- Hennicker, Hussmann, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cification [2] (version 1.4), page 6-52 An OCL expression is an invariant of the type and must be true for all instances of that type at any time. that raised some criticism by some researchers (e.g. =-=[21]-=-). Since OCL semantics describes “state transitions”, at any time means at any state that is reachable by the state transition relation. The issue of “intermediate states” that may violate invariants ... |

9 | A formal semantics for ocl 1.4
- Cengarle, Knapp
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ML [11], CSP [12],or Z [13]. In this document, we summarize experiences and consequences of our formalization, including answers on questions raised in previous research on the precise meaning of OCL =-=[14, 15, 4]-=-: the issue of partial and total correctness, the role of exceptions, the precise meaning of invariants, the option for recursive query methods and executability of OCL, and its potential for formal r... |

8 |
The Object Contraint Language: Precise Modelling with UML
- Warmer, Kleppe
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r emphasize is put on the issue of mechanized deduction in UML/OCL specification. Keywords: OCL, formal semantics, constraint languages, refinement 1 Introduction The Object Constraint Language (OCL) =-=[2, 3, 4]-=- is part of the UML, the de-facto standard of object-oriented modeling. Being in the tradition of data-oriented formal specification languages like Z [5] or VDM [6], OCL is designed to make UML diagra... |

5 |
Response to the UML 2.0 OCL RfP
- Warmer, Kleppe, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r emphasize is put on the issue of mechanized deduction in UML/OCL specification. Keywords: OCL, formal semantics, constraint languages, refinement 1 Introduction The Object Constraint Language (OCL) =-=[2, 3, 4]-=- is part of the UML, the de-facto standard of object-oriented modeling. Being in the tradition of data-oriented formal specification languages like Z [5] or VDM [6], OCL is designed to make UML diagra... |

1 |
Isabelle: A generic theorem prover. LNCS 825
- Paulson
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...OL type system is quite similar to the OCL type system, but offers no subtyping. Moreover, there are products, maps, and even a theory on real numbers and non-standard analysis. 2.2 Isabelle Isabelle =-=[17]-=- is a generic theorem prover. New object logic’s can be introduced by specifying their syntax and inference rules. Among other logics, Isabelle supports first order logic (constructive and classical),... |

1 |
Denotational semantics. 1 edn
- Mosses
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olff with the consequence: first(X, ⊥) = ⊥ and second(⊥, Y ) = ⊥ Alternatively, tuples may be defined as: with the natural consequence: (⊥, X) ̸= (Y , ⊥) ̸= ⊥ first(X, ⊥) = X and second(⊥, Y ) = Y In =-=[19, 20]-=-, the former is called “smashed product”, while the latter is the standard product. We also apply this terminology for sets, bags and sequences and suggest the use of smashed collection types and stri... |