## Emergence and complex systems: Towards new practices for industrial automation // Intelligent processing and manufacturing of materials

Citations: | 3 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Hyötyniemi_emergenceand,

author = {Heikki Hyötyniemi},

title = {Emergence and complex systems: Towards new practices for industrial automation // Intelligent processing and manufacturing of materials},

journal = {},

year = {},

volume = {23},

pages = {2003}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

There exist various complex systems theories. Common to these ideas is that they construct fancy abstractions about complexity – so fancy that it is difficult to see the underlying domain fields any more. However, there will not exist applications of the theories if the abstractions cannot be concretized. This paper tries to show that something practical can really be reached: New approaches and conceptual tools can be developed, the application field here being industrial automation systems.

### Citations

4198 |
Artificial Intelligence: a modern approach, Englewood Cliffs
- Norvig, Russel
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to apply the system theoretical approach is to recognize the similarity between the two paradigms, CS and AI research – artificial intelligence just happens to be some decades older (for example, see =-=[22]-=-). It seems that it is the same kind of open-minded researchers and audience that constitute the infosphere in both cases – the promises of huge developments sound so familiar. However, the big promis... |

2838 |
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
- Kuhn
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es place. If enough evidence cumulates, so that the new ideas offer the simplest explanation to observations, only after that the transition between paradigms takes place, as presented by Thomas Kuhn =-=[21]-=-. However, the above view into the scientific revolutions is still extremely static, assuming that one simply steps from an equilibrium point to another. The complex systems theory contributes here by... |

1688 | Independent component analysis
- Hyvärinen, Karhunen, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... form of nonlinearity; in what follows, it is assumed to be the only one. The idea of independent components often offers a physically better motivated structure for data than principal components do =-=[8]-=-. Latent bases based on such ideas can also be implemented in the presented framework; however, the efficiency of PCA techniques cannot be utilized for the model construction, because it is not simply... |

452 |
Linked : the new science of networks
- Barabási
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ome developments have been taking place …sAPPROACHES TO COMPLEXITY There are different views of what complex systems are, and what are the right approaches to attacking such systems (for example, see =-=[2]-=-). Here, only one prototype of the current approaches is presented, and the emerging problems are pointed out. Wolfram’s World One year has passed since the publication of the Stephen Wolfram’s book “... |

289 |
Genetic Programming - An Introduction
- Banzhaf, Nordin, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...such mechanisms is not easy, it can be claimed that the proposed framework with domain-oriented hierarchical structures offers a good environment for implementing Genetic Algorithms (for example, see =-=[1]-=-). It seems that the idea of mixtures of mixtures can be applied to very wide range of different kinds of modelling problems. It can even be claimed that constructing such models is characteristic to ... |

137 |
On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems I. Translated by
- Gödel
- 1931
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ypical example of how CA’s can explain Nature Wolfram’s book shows that within the simplest of CA’s there lives the power of universal computation. For such systems the Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem =-=[5]-=- applies. This famous theorem states that all systems that are such powerful are either incomplete or inconsistent, meaning that no analysis can reveal every detail of their behaviour. Wolfram further... |

131 |
A New Kind of Science, Wolfram
- Wolfram
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...type of the current approaches is presented, and the emerging problems are pointed out. Wolfram’s World One year has passed since the publication of the Stephen Wolfram’s book “A New Kind of Science” =-=[24]-=-. There has been very much discussion around the book – not only about its scientific merits – and it is still too early to estimate what will be the lasting value of this contribution. Wolfram propos... |

125 |
Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods
- Basilevsky
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ramework is needed to manipulate subspaces and uncertainty in a flexible way. It turns out that multivariate statistical methods are exactly what is needed: Indeed, principal component analysis (PCA) =-=[3]-=- gives an efficient method for detecting the dependency structures in the data, and for identification of the parameters of such model. The idea in PCA is to capture most of the “information” within t... |

111 | From computing with numbers to computing with words—from manipulation of
- Zadeh
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... almost all are strictly symbolic. In the extreme other end, there are the approaches where structure is dropped altogether: As a prototypical example, Lotfi Zadeh’s idea about “computing with words” =-=[25]-=- can be mentioned – there concepts are expressed in a numerical form. Also in [16], a language capable of universal computation is presented with no data structures at all. However, even though modell... |

81 |
Self-Organizing Maps. 3rd edition
- Kohonen
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... mixture models from degenerating, that is, preventing some of the Gaussians from becoming too strong and some vanishing. A robust way to assure stability is by applying the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) =-=[20]-=-, for example: Defining a one-dimensional map from the first Gaussian to the last keeps all prototypes involved. In complex cases, when there are alternative paths in the AND/OR graph, the adaptation ... |

40 | A Convergent Iterative Restricted Complexity Control Design Scheme
- Hjalmarsson, Gunnarsson, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... within a process itself according to the observed closed loop performance. In this sense, the proposed approach is a generalization of iterative feedback tuning (IFT) method, originally suggested in =-=[7]-=-. The main difference here is the use of multivariate regression methods rather than traditional control engineering approaches. The proposed approach is more general, and in the case of excessive par... |

30 | The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge - Horgan - 1997 |

7 |
On mental images and “computational semantics
- Hyötyniemi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...atures of the perceived object, but at some point, when the data becomes sufficiently distorted, the interpretation of what the object is in the first place (horse or camel, for example) changes (see =-=[9]-=-). In this sense, it can be claimed that this formalism supports the human way of seeing the world. One can go even further along these lines. Remember that – with the exception of the lowest level ha... |

4 | Emergence and complex systems - towards a new science of industrial automation
- Hyotyniemi
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...forgotten – one still can address the whole world. This paper summarizes the presentation that was given during the IPMM’03 Conference in Sendai, Japan. Comparing to the original version of the paper =-=[18]-=-, one can see that in one year some developments have been taking place …sAPPROACHES TO COMPLEXITY There are different views of what complex systems are, and what are the right approaches to attacking... |

3 |
From Intelligent Models to Smart Ones
- Hyötyniemi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...exity results, but the “natural” nonlinearities would still be captured. In this context, it is assumed that the classes of natural nonlinearity typically existing in real data are the following (see =-=[10]-=-): • Smooth nonlinearities. It is typical that the system properties change in a continuous, differentiable fashion when the parameters or variables are modified. • Clustered data. There also exist no... |

3 |
Life-like control
- Hyötyniemi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... structures, static and dynamic alike, can readily be implemented in this framework. If needed, regression to unknown variables can readily be implemented also in such an “associative” framework (see =-=[14]-=-). However, there are complications: Noise is added in the measurements, and typically the data can not be exactly matched with the model. A new framework is needed to manipulate subspaces and uncerta... |

3 |
third edition). Sciences of the Artificial
- Simon
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al Gaussians is just one step towards higher abstraction levels. Remember the importance of selecting the appropriate abstraction level when pursuing understandable models (see again Fig. 3; see also =-=[23]-=-). There exist different scales also among Gaussians – when selecting a longer time span, the scarce connections become tight, and it is natural to see the set of submodels as constituting a single mo... |

2 |
revised edition). General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. George Braziller
- Bertalanffy
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... large number of simple operations or structures are combined, something qualitatively new may pop up: The whole is more that the sum of the parts. This is one of the slogans of General System Theory =-=[4]-=-. When trying to capture the holistic idea of emergence using reductionistic tools, it is evident that a wider perspective is needed. SYSTEMS VIEW It is clear that the complex systems theory is far fr... |

2 |
Multivariate regression – From static models to subspace identification
- Hyötyniemi
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...all means that the traditional control engineering tools become obsolete, and new ones are needed. It turns out that multivariate statistics offers a powerful framework for attacking the new problems =-=[11]-=-. Some concrete examples are presented below. “SIMPLE COMPLEX” DATA To show that the lengthy philosophical discussions above actually give guidelines to reaching useful results, very concrete examples... |

2 |
Towards new languages for systems modelling, and On emergent models and optimization of parameters
- Hyötyniemi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... presented above can be applied for parameter optimization, assuming that the mapping between the qualifiers and the quantities is differentiable (see Fig. 6). Two different examples are presented in =-=[12]-=-: The first one illustrates a modeling problem, where an approximate model is optimized to better match the observed behavior; it is like having the model and the actual process integrated, the proces... |

2 |
Studies on emergence and cognition – Parts 1 and 2: Low-level functions, and High-level functionalities
- Hyötyniemi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e static pattern, the fixed point where the iteration will finally get to. In this way, when looking at the system in a wider perspective, much simpler analysis of complex systems can be reached (see =-=[13]-=-). Mastering the structure makes all the difference. System Grammar It seems that sooner or later complexity again pops up when AND/OR blocks are nested. Indeed, this is something we are already expec... |

2 |
Towards Perception Hierarchies
- Hyötyniemi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ensional whiteboard representing time axis Now there is a framework for manipulating large amounts of data. These data need to be delivered to the processing machinery in a practical form (compare to =-=[15]-=-). It turns out that one can give new contents to the age-old blackboard technique employed in AI: Separate entities (agents) independently operate on different data units and modify them in parallel ... |

2 |
On the universality and undecidability in dynamic systems
- Hyötyniemi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hes where structure is dropped altogether: As a prototypical example, Lotfi Zadeh’s idea about “computing with words” [25] can be mentioned – there concepts are expressed in a numerical form. Also in =-=[16]-=-, a language capable of universal computation is presented with no data structures at all. However, even though modelling based on extreme homogeneity sounds like a good idea, the truth is that apples... |

2 |
Reality and Truth in the Semantic Web
- Hyötyniemi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... can be the actual process, so that hardware-in-a-loop structures can also be supported. Indeed, it is possible that the information comes from some completely separate source, like from Semantic Web =-=[17]-=-.sθ u y Model Evaluation q Figure 4. The next level for looking at a dynamic system When studying the consequences of the proposed higher-level system view, some advantages can be detected: • Generali... |

1 |
Modeling Mixtures of Mixtures
- Hyötyniemi
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ructures is possible; strings to be found exactly in the presented form are given between quotes, and terminal symbols are given between “<” and “>”. For a more accurate and complete description, see =-=[19]-=-. The domain that is being modelled is divided in a set of AND/OR structures; that is, the basic construct in the domain field is assumed to be constituted of a combination of lower-level mixtures (OR... |