## Diversity and Attack Characterization for Improved Robust Watermarking (2001)

Venue: | IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESSING |

Citations: | 24 - 7 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Kundur01diversityand,

author = {Deepa Kundur and Dimitrios Hatzinakos},

title = {Diversity and Attack Characterization for Improved Robust Watermarking},

journal = {IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESSING},

year = {2001},

volume = {49},

number = {10},

pages = {2383--2396}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We consider the use of novel communication tool sets to improve the performance of robust watermarking systems. In particular, we relate the effects of attacks on the watermark to signal interference in a fading environment and employ diversity transmission and channel estimation principles to improve performance. A nonstationary parallel binary symmetric channel (BSC) model of the watermark channel is introduced to more accurately characterize signal tampering and, hence, extract the watermark. Analysis of the system sheds light on novel strategies and domains to embed information to improve the performance of robust data hiding schemes. Simulation and testing verify our theoretical observations.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...e watermarking procedure. (6)sKUNDUR AND HATZINAKOS: DIVERSITY AND ATTACK CHARACTERIZATION 2387 It is shown in Appendix A that where the average bit error rate is and is the relative entropy given by =-=[23]-=- and (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) The sequences and are probability-like distributions; their elements are non-negative and sum to one. The bound of (7) is tight for small and close to a constant (i.e., for ... |

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Citation Context ...on the resulting detail coefficients without significant bandwidth consumption. C. Simulation Results In the implementation of our methods, we specifically make use of the Daubechies 10-point wavelet =-=[30]-=- for all simulations. Fig. 7. Results for lowpass filtering degradation. (a) Correlation coefficient versus filter parameter " (the dashed and dash-dotted lines represent the results for the methods b... |

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Citation Context ...ify how the characterization is performed here as this is an implementation issue discussed in Section IV, but we assume this reliability factor to be available. Many proposed watermarking algorithms =-=[6]-=-, [13], [16]–[20] (this is by no means an exhaustive list) are encompassed by this class of techniques or can be easily modified to fit this category. Although we restrict the watermark to be a bit se... |

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Citation Context ... is to effectively communicate the watermark information using information hiding techniques. Much of the work on robust digital watermarking is based on spread spectrum (SS) communication principles =-=[1]-=-–[9]. In SS watermarking, the embedded signal is generally a low-energy pseudo-randomly generated white noise sequence. It is detected by correlating the known watermark sequence with either the extra... |

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Citation Context ...acterization is performed here as this is an implementation issue discussed in Section IV, but we assume this reliability factor to be available. Many proposed watermarking algorithms [6], [13], [16]–=-=[20]-=- (this is by no means an exhaustive list) are encompassed by this class of techniques or can be easily modified to fit this category. Although we restrict the watermark to be a bit sequence and the re... |

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Citation Context ... characterization is performed here as this is an implementation issue discussed in Section IV, but we assume this reliability factor to be available. Many proposed watermarking algorithms [6], [13], =-=[16]-=-–[20] (this is by no means an exhaustive list) are encompassed by this class of techniques or can be easily modified to fit this category. Although we restrict the watermark to be a bit sequence and t... |

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Citation Context ...e presence of noise and scaling. We believe that geometric distortions, while tedious to address, are possible to overcome through appropriate signal computation and registration as discussed in [12]–=-=[14]-=-. The next section introduces the basic setting for the analytic work; the proposed assumptions and models are discussed. Section III highlights the main theoretical results. These observations and im... |

108 | Digital watermarking for telltale tamper proofing and authentication
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Citation Context ...adations. Not only does this domain allow more effective robust watermarking, but it is convenient for characterization of unlawful signal doctoring for telltale fragile watermarking, as discussed in =-=[24]-=-. Based on our analysis, we believe that the strengths of the scheme arise from the following factors. • We embed the watermark in the wavelet domain, which localizes a diverse class of distortions su... |

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Citation Context ...lity with the proposed techniques, embedding is performed in the discrete wavelet domain. In addition, the original host image is not used for watermark detection. The method suggested by Piva et al. =-=[29]-=- is employed. S2) The wavelet-based technique by Ohnishi and Matsui [17] hides information in the Haar wavelet domain. To embed a given watermark bit into resolution and spatial location , the differe... |

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Citation Context ...entifier S 1053-587X(01)07780-7. 1053–587X/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE tion in watermarking since a low energy, and hence imperceptible, watermark, that is robust to narrowband interference, can be embedded =-=[8]-=-. However, SS approaches have a number of limitations. SS signaling approaches are specifically vulnerable to the “near– far” problem [10]. For watermarking, this implies that if the energy of the wat... |

95 | Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook
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Citation Context ...bandwidth as in common SS communication environments. It should be mentioned that these same characteristics are used to justify the use of a fading model for the classic partial-band jamming problem =-=[15]-=-. 2) Diversity: One general way in which to improve reliability in an unknown, nonstationary environment susceptible to deep fades is to employ diversity. A communication channel can be broken into in... |

76 | Digital Watermarking Using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... extracted, then a random guess is made to its value. 3) Algorithmic Overview: We present in Tables I and II the watermark embedding and extraction scenarios, respectively. Again, see [21], [27], and =-=[28]-=- for details. B. Figures of Merit and Comparison The focus of this paper has been on the incorporation of coefficient diversity and attack characterization to improve the reliability of robust waterma... |

52 | Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video
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Citation Context ...to effectively communicate the watermark information using information hiding techniques. Much of the work on robust digital watermarking is based on spread spectrum (SS) communication principles [1]–=-=[9]-=-. In SS watermarking, the embedded signal is generally a low-energy pseudo-randomly generated white noise sequence. It is detected by correlating the known watermark sequence with either the extracted... |

44 |
Dither modulation: a new approach to digital watermarking and information embedding
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...plies that if the energy of the watermark is reduced due to fading-like distortions on the watermark, any residual correlation between the host signal and watermark can result in unreliable detection =-=[11]-=-. In addition, they neither take into account spatial nonstationarity of the host image and attack interference nor readily incorporate adaptive techniques to estimate the statistical variations. Furt... |

42 |
Rotation, scale and translation invariant digital image watermarking
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ow the characterization is performed here as this is an implementation issue discussed in Section IV, but we assume this reliability factor to be available. Many proposed watermarking algorithms [6], =-=[13]-=-, [16]–[20] (this is by no means an exhaustive list) are encompassed by this class of techniques or can be easily modified to fit this category. Although we restrict the watermark to be a bit sequence... |

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26 |
Embedding a Seal into a Picture Under Orthogonal Wavelet Transform
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Citation Context ...e wavelet domain. In addition, the original host image is not used for watermark detection. The method suggested by Piva et al. [29] is employed. S2) The wavelet-based technique by Ohnishi and Matsui =-=[17]-=- hides information in the Haar wavelet domain. To embed a given watermark bit into resolution and spatial location , the difference between the Fig. 5. Results for additive white Gaussian noise degrad... |

25 | Protecting publicly-available image with an invisible image watermask - Braudaway - 1997 |

23 |
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Citation Context ...rk, that is robust to narrowband interference, can be embedded [8]. However, SS approaches have a number of limitations. SS signaling approaches are specifically vulnerable to the “near– far” problem =-=[10]-=-. For watermarking, this implies that if the energy of the watermark is reduced due to fading-like distortions on the watermark, any residual correlation between the host signal and watermark can resu... |

19 |
Improved robust watermarking through attack characterization
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s round (1) where round integer round operator; and th watermark bits of and , respectively; associated scalar non-negative weight dependent on the estimated reliability factor such that . We show in =-=[21]-=- that the following assignment for minimizes the bit error of to produce an optimal linear watermark extraction: This linear estimation procedure is by no means the only alternative for combining the ... |

14 | Digital Watermarking: Algorithms and Implications for Multimedia Signals
- Kundur, Multiresonlution
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... bit error as it may be unknown at the receiver.Useof the robust watermark, if it is known, will increase the probability of false positive detection that may not be appropriate for some applications =-=[27]-=-. It should be clarified that unlike traditional references used for identifying geometric distortions, our reference watermark does not compromise the security of the technique. Its location and cont... |

11 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ategies seem more robust to LR attacks than linear addition-based techniques, such as in S1). A more sophisticated version of the LR attack for DCT-based watermarking algorithms has been developed in =-=[32]-=-. Future work involves adapting this approach to DWT watermarking and assessing the robustness to the proposed scheme. To summarize, it is evident from the results that use of diversity and channel es... |

7 | Schyndel, “Image watermarking-a spread spectrum application - Tirkel, Osborne, et al. |

6 |
Image and watermark registration
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in the presence of noise and scaling. We believe that geometric distortions, while tedious to address, are possible to overcome through appropriate signal computation and registration as discussed in =-=[12]-=-–[14]. The next section introduces the basic setting for the analytic work; the proposed assumptions and models are discussed. Section III highlights the main theoretical results. These observations a... |

5 | Algebraic construction of a new class of quasiorthogonal arrays for steganography - Schyndel, Tirkel, et al. - 1999 |

5 |
Attack operators for digitally watermarked images
- Barnett, Pearson
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...atermark and attack characterization significantly improves the performance of the technique. One of the most effective attacks against DCT-based watermarking has been proposed by Barnett and Pearson =-=[31]-=-. The distortion function known as the Laplacian removal (LR) attack operator makes two estimates (one positive denoted and another negative denoted ) of the embedded watermark from the marked media u... |

4 |
Communication System, third ed
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sticated statistical estimation and combination principles may not be reliable. As pointed out by one anonymous reviewer of this paper, the formulation has the flavor of maximum likelihood estimation =-=[22]-=-. III. ANALYSIS AND INSIGHTS In this section, we summarize our analysis to determine effective embedding strategies using our parallel BSC model of the watermark channel shown in Fig. 1. A. Overview o... |

1 |
a telltale watermarking technique for tamper-proofing
- “Toward
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...epetition of the watermark needs to be intact for reliable watermark recovery. IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING A. Robust Reference Watermarking 1) Role of the Reference Watermark: It has been shown in =-=[25]-=- and [26] that elementary characteristics of the signal distortions are easily estimated using a reference watermark. A reference watermark is one that is embedded into a signal for the purpose of det... |

1 |
image restoration based on telltale watermarking
- “Semi-blind
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of the watermark needs to be intact for reliable watermark recovery. IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING A. Robust Reference Watermarking 1) Role of the Reference Watermark: It has been shown in [25] and =-=[26]-=- that elementary characteristics of the signal distortions are easily estimated using a reference watermark. A reference watermark is one that is embedded into a signal for the purpose of detecting mo... |