## Radiance Interpolants for Interactive Scene Editing and Ray Tracing (1999)

Citations: | 5 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Bala99radianceinterpolants,

author = {Kavita Bala},

title = {Radiance Interpolants for Interactive Scene Editing and Ray Tracing},

year = {1999}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

### Citations

9158 | Introduction to Algorithms
- Cormen, Leiserson, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imple extrapolation algorithm), while being faster than Algorithm 2 (the extrapolation algorithm that guarantees correct visibility). Both these algorithms are faster because they use a binary search =-=[CLR90]-=- of the scan-line to find the previous and next pixels p and n described in Figure 5-9. However, neither of these algorithms guarantee correct visibility, since the binary search might miss small inte... |

1173 | Light field rendering
- Levoy, Hanrahan
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te the scene model, and use images as the input to the rendering engine. The interpolant ray tracer differs in its goals substantially from these systems; however, IBR systems such as the Light Field =-=[LH96]-=- and the Lumigraph [GGSC96] have similarities to the interpolant ray tracer because they also collect radiance samples over a four-dimensional line space and quadrilinearly interpolate the samples to ... |

922 | The Lumigraph
- Gortler, Grzeszczuk, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se images as the input to the rendering engine. The interpolant ray tracer differs in its goals substantially from these systems; however, IBR systems such as the Light Field [LH96] and the Lumigraph =-=[GGSC96]-=- have similarities to the interpolant ray tracer because they also collect radiance samples over a four-dimensional line space and quadrilinearly interpolate the samples to approximate radiance. Both ... |

708 | Plenoptic modeling: An image-based rendering system
- McMillan, Bishop
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hading and computes accurate radiance at each pixel, but relies on the computational power of multiprocessor hardware to accelerate rendering. Image-based rendering. The goal of image-based rendering =-=[MB95]-=- is to support interactive rendering of scenes where radiance samples are collected by acquiring images of the scene in a pre-processing phase. The idea is to eliminate the scene model, and use images... |

593 |
Methods and Applications of Interval Analysis
- Moore
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is also the L∞ distance between the functions f(x) and ˜ f(x). 4.3.4 Interval arithmetic There are several ways in which the error term in Equation 4.3 can be computed, including interval arithmetic =-=[Moo79]-=-, Hansen’s generalized interval arithmetic [Han75] and variants [Tup96], and affine arithmetic [ACS94]. The simplest approach is to use interval arithmetic: values in a computation are replaced by int... |

593 |
An improved illumination model for shaded display
- Whitted
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se the degree of realism to provide faster rendering. Two commonly used global illumination algorithms span the spectrum of options: ray tracing and radiosity. At one end of the spectrum, ray tracing =-=[Whi80]-=- is a popular technique for rendering highquality images. Ray tracers support a rich set of models and capture view-dependent specular effects, as well as reflections and transmission. However, the vi... |

433 | Scheduling multithreaded computations by work stealing
- Blumofe, Leiserson
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...memory contention. To achieve balanced loads when rendering a frame, the interpolant ray tracer divides an image into square chunks that are queued to the processors available. A work queue algorithm =-=[BL94]-=- is used to obtain balanced work-loads on each processor. Several steps are taken to decrease memory contention between competing processors. The only data structure shared by the processors is the li... |

390 |
Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection
- Ward
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ray tracer, it inherits some of the limitations of a Whitted ray tracer. It also places some additional restrictions on the scene being rendered. The ray tracer uses the Ward isotropic shading model =-=[War92]-=-. While this is a more sophisticated model than that of Whitted, it does not model diffuse inter-reflections and generalized light transport. Also, the error bounding algorithm described in Chapter 4 ... |

387 | A rapid hierarchical radiosity algorithm - Hanrahan, Salzman, et al. - 1991 |

379 |
A reflectance model for computer graphics
- Cook, Torrance
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng, and the Whitted ray tracing model for global illumination. The techniques discussed in this chapter can be extended to other local shading models such as non-isotropic Ward [War92], Cook-Torrance =-=[CT82]-=-, He [HTSG91], and others [Gla95, WC88]. Only the linear interval techniques that identify non-linear radiance variations would need to be modified. Because these linear interval techniques are very g... |

354 | Modeling the interaction of light between diffuse surfaces
- Goral, Torrance, et al.
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ections and transmission. However, the view-dependent component of radiance is expensive to compute, making ray tracers unsuitable for interactive applications. 15sAt the other end, radiosity methods =-=[GTGB84]-=- capture view-independent diffuse inter-reflections in a scene; however, these methods restrict the scene to pure diffuse, polygonal objects. Radiosity systems pre-compute view-independent radiosity f... |

336 |
Introduction to Ray Tracing
- Glassner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct the shaft, the interpolant is valid. Intersecting each shaft with all the objects in the scene could be expensive. Since the scene is augmented with a kd-tree to accelerate ray-scene intersections =-=[Gla89]-=- (see Chapter 7), the following optimization is used to decrease the cost of the shaft cull: the algorithm finds the least 65 o 7 o 8 o 2sL B Figure 4-7: Shaft-culling for shadows. The shaft from the ... |

329 | Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis - Cohen, Wallace - 1993 |

310 |
Simulation of wrinkled surfaces
- Blinn
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ustics is more difficult. • Textures: Using the existing algorithm, the system can be extended straightforwardly to support texturing of the specular or reflective coefficients of surfaces. Bump maps =-=[Bli78]-=- could also be supported without difficulty. Some more sophisticated texturing techniques that change object geometry, such as displacement maps [Coo84], are more difficult to support. • Light sources... |

292 | Stochastic sampling in computer graphics - Cook - 1986 |

292 | Introduction to Geometry - Coxeter - 1969 |

243 | A ray tracing solution to diffuse interreflection - Ward, F, et al. - 1988 |

236 |
Principles of Digital Image Synthesis
- Glassner
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ace t R 01 R 00 R s-t line space Figure 3-5: A segment pair and its associated s-t line space. Bilinear interpolation is a standard technique for interpolation of a function over a rectangular domain =-=[Gla95]-=-. The set of four radiance samples associated with the extremal rays is called an interpolant. Radiance interpolants are stored in a hierarchical data structure called a linetree; each of the four seg... |

213 |
Numerical methods
- Dahlquist, Bjorck
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ting linear intervals. The error bounding algorithm presented here improves on this approach by using second-order Taylor expansions that result in tighter error bounds. According to Taylor’s theorem =-=[DB69]-=-, when n terms of the Taylor series are used to approximate f(x) over the domain D =[−∆x, ∆x], the remainder Rn is the error that results from using this truncated approximation: ∀x∈D∃ξ∈D f(x) = f(x0)... |

208 |
Operating Systems: Design and Implementation
- Tanenbaum
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gement strategy that reuses memory for linetrees and interpolants. The interpolant ray tracer implements a linetree cache management algorithm similar to the UNIX clock algorithm for page replacement =-=[Tan87]-=-, though it manages memory at the granularity of linetree cells rather than at page granularity. The system allocates memory for linetrees and interpolants in large blocks. When the system memory usag... |

196 |
Shade trees
- Cook
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ith ray tracing. Several researchers have developed ray tracers supporting scene editing that incrementally render only those parts of the scene that might be affected by a change. Cook’s shade trees =-=[Coo84]-=- maintain a symbolic evaluation of the local illumination at each pixel of a frame. When an object’s material properties are changed, the shade trees are re-evaluated with the new material properties,... |

196 | Postrendering 3D warping
- Mark, McMillan, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... depth complexity could require excessive memory. Also, 33sthough this technique alleviates artifacts for specular surfaces, it still relies on radiance sampling that is not error-driven. Mark et al. =-=[MMB97]-=- apply a 3D warp to pixels from reference images to create an image at the new viewpoint. They treat their reference image as a mesh and warp the mesh triangles to the current viewpoint. Their system ... |

188 | A multiscale model of adaptation and spatial vision for realistic image display - Pattanaik, Ferwerda, et al. - 1998 |

186 |
Space Subdivision for Fast Ray Tracing
- Glassner
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing rendering Accelerating rendering is a long standing area of research. Many researchers have developed techniques that improve the performance of rendering systems: adaptive 3D spatial hierarchies =-=[Gla84]-=-, beam-tracing for polyhedral scenes [HH84], cone-tracing [Ama84], and ray classification [AK87]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Gla89, CW93, SP94, Gla95]. In this chapter, the re... |

174 | A model of visual adaptation for realistic image synthesis - Ferwerda, Pattanaik, et al. - 1996 |

173 | Beam tracing polygonal objects - HECKBERT, HANRAHAN - 1984 |

163 | Radiosity and Global Illumination - SILLION, PUECH - 1994 |

162 | Interactive ray tracing - Parker, Martin, et al. - 1999 |

160 | A comprehensive physical model for light reflection
- HE, TORRANCE, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Whitted ray tracing model for global illumination. The techniques discussed in this chapter can be extended to other local shading models such as non-isotropic Ward [War92], Cook-Torrance [CT82], He =-=[HTSG91]-=-, and others [Gla95, WC88]. Only the linear interval techniques that identify non-linear radiance variations would need to be modified. Because these linear interval techniques are very general, appli... |

159 | Progressive simplicial complexes
- Popovic, Hoppe
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re nearly linearly dependent (and thus cover a negligible portion of line space). 55sThe vertex-splitting approach proposed by Popović and Hoppe for lower-dimensional simplex meshes may be applicable =-=[PH97]-=-. • Visibility acceleration is more difficult with pentatope interpolants than with 4D hypercubes, because there is no obvious analog to the front and back face clipping algorithm that is used to iden... |

142 | A two-pass solution to the rendering equation: A synthesis of ray tracing and radiosity methods - Wallace, Cohen, et al. - 1987 |

135 | A perceptually based adaptive sampling algorithm - BOLIN, MEYER - 1998 |

132 | Irradiance gradients
- Ward, Heckbert
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Ray tracers typically use stochastic techniques to estimate error in computed radiance [Coo86, PS89] but do not rigorously bound error. Ward’s RADIANCE ray tracer estimates error for diffuse radiance =-=[WH92]-=-. RADIANCE uses ray tracing to produce high-quality images that include view-dependent specular effects, as well as diffuse inter-reflections [WRC88, War92]. RADIANCE assumes that the diffuse componen... |

118 | A progressive multi-pass method for global illumination - Chen, Rushmeier, et al. - 1991 |

117 | Management of large amounts of data in interactive building walkthroughs
- FUNKHOUSER, SÉQUIN, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... systems issues that should be addressed to achieve this goal: for example, how to represent radiance in persistent storage and how to compress large radiance data sets effectively. Funkhouser et al. =-=[FST92]-=- address storage issues for large radiosity data sets; some of their techniques should be applicable to this problem. IBR systems [GGSC96, LH96] present techniques to compress 4D radiance information;... |

114 | Fast ray tracing by ray classification
- ARVO, KIRK
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eveloped techniques that improve the performance of rendering systems: adaptive 3D spatial hierarchies [Gla84], beam-tracing for polyhedral scenes [HH84], cone-tracing [Ama84], and ray classification =-=[AK87]-=-. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Gla89, CW93, SP94, Gla95]. In this chapter, the related work most relevant to this thesis is presented. Ray tracers perform two major operations: ... |

114 | and François X. Sillion. Fast Calculation of Soft Shadow Textures Using Convolution - Soler - 1998 |

106 | A model of visual masking for computer graphics - Ferwerda, Pattanaik, et al. - 1997 |

106 | A general two-pass method integrating specular and diffuse reflection - Sillion, Puech - 1989 |

100 | P.: Interactive Rendering Using the Render Cache
- WALTER, DRETTAKIS, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dering a frame and reuse these cached radiance values to render interactively. Ward [War98] uses a 4D holodeck data structure that is populated as the RADIANCE system computes an image. Walter et al. =-=[WDP99]-=- store radiance samples in a render cache, and reproject these samples when the viewpoint changes. With varying success, these systems use heuristics to fill in pixels not stored in their caches. Thes... |

96 | Antialiased ray tracing by adaptive progressive refinement - PAINTER, SLOAN - 1989 |

95 | Global visibility algorithms for illumination computations
- Teller, Hanrahan
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teen children of the linetree cell are shown in Figure 3-8. Note that each of the sixteen children shares one extremal ray with the parent linetree cell. This subdivision scheme is similar to that in =-=[TH93]-=-. 3.3 Using 4D linetrees Linetrees are used to store and look up interpolants during rendering. When rendering a pixel, the corresponding eye ray is constructed and intersected with the scene. If the ... |

89 | Image-Based Rendering for Non-Diffuse Synthetic Scenes
- Lischinski, Rappoport
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n the viewpoint to lie outside the convex hull of the scene. Recently, Lischinski and Rappoport use layered depth images (LDIs) to rapidly render both diffuse and specular radiance for new viewpoints =-=[LR98]-=-. They represent diffuse radiance with a few high-resolution LDIs and specular radiance with several low-resolution LDIs. When the scene is rendered, these LDIs are rapidly recombined to produce appro... |

84 |
An importance-driven radiosity algorithm
- Smits, Arvo, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion 4.1.1 could be relaxed to permit interpolation across small discontinuities; understanding the implications of relaxing this invariant is an important research area. Importance-driven techniques =-=[SAS92]-=- could be used to track the important sources of light energy for each interpolant. Sources of energy that contribute light energy below the error threshold would be ignored. The error bounding algori... |

75 | Incremental Radiosity: An Extension of Progressive Radiosity to an Interactive Image - Chen - 1990 |

72 |
Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions
- Sommerville
- 1934
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...− Cz) 2 = R 2 a + c [(c − a)Cz +( 2 − Cx)] 2 − R 2 [1 + (c − a) 2 ]=0 (A.1) Equation A.1 is a second-order equation in a and c. The discriminant of the equation satisfies the condition of a hyperbola =-=[Som59]-=-. Thus, when the circle o is edited, the region of 2D line space affected by the edit is the interior of a hyperbola—that is, the rays in the shaded region on the right in Figure A-1 are affected by t... |

71 | Sillion. Interactive update of global illumination using A line-space hierarchy
- Drettakis, X
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ents of these systems can be large. 2.2.2 Radiosity In the context of radiosity, several researchers have studied the problem of dynamic editing [Che90, GSG90, FYT94]. Recently, Dretakkis and Sillion =-=[DS97]-=- augment the link structure of hierarchical radiosity with additional line-space information to track links affected by the addition or deletion of objects. The hierarchical link structure, and hence ... |

68 |
Ray Casting for Modeling Solids
- Roth
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...error in various ways. The assumptions are as follows: 1. The scene is composed of convex objects: spheres, cubes, polygons, cylinders and cones and the CSG union and intersection of these primitives =-=[Rot82]-=- are supported. This assumption simplifies the detection of certains kinds of discontinuities; for example, discontinuities arising from shadow edges. 2. The base ray tracer implements a classical Whi... |

67 | Bounds and error estimates for radiosity
- Lischinski, Smits, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eflections often produce a smoother distribution of light energy within the scene, so one would expect radiance interpolation to be more successful. Techniques for bounding error in radiosity systems =-=[LSG94]-=- may be useful. Bounding error from caustics is more difficult. • Textures: Using the existing algorithm, the system can be extended straightforwardly to support texturing of the specular or reflectiv... |

63 |
Shaft Culling for Efficient Ray-Traced Radiosity
- Haines, Wallace
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d for each pixel, the reprojection algorithm conservatively determines visibility by suppressing the reprojection of linetree cells that might be occluded. This occlusion is detected by shaft-culling =-=[HW91]-=- each clipped back face against the current viewpoint. The shaft consists of five planes: four planes extend from the eye to each of the edges of the clipped back face, and the fifth back plane is the... |