## Probabilistic checking of proofs: a new characterization of NP (1998)

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by
Sanjeev Arora

Venue: | Journal of the ACM |

Citations: | 366 - 28 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Arora98probabilisticchecking,

author = {Sanjeev Arora},

title = {Probabilistic checking of proofs: a new characterization of NP},

booktitle = {Journal of the ACM},

year = {1998},

pages = {2--13}

}

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### Abstract

Abstract. We give a new characterization of NP: the class NP contains exactly those languages L for which membership proofs (a proof that an input x is in L) can be verified probabilistically in polynomial time using logarithmic number of random bits and by reading sublogarithmic number of bits from the proof. We discuss implications of this characterization; specifically, we show that approximating Clique and Independent Set, even in a very weak sense, is NP-hard.