## Qualitative and quantitative aspects of vowel harmony: A dynamics model (2005)

Venue: | In |

Citations: | 4 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Benus05qualitativeand,

author = {Stefan Benus and Adamantios I. Gafos},

title = {Qualitative and quantitative aspects of vowel harmony: A dynamics model},

booktitle = {In},

year = {2005},

pages = {226--231},

publisher = {Erlbaum}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study a specific instance of this problem in Hungarian vowel harmony. We present a model where continuous phonetic distinctions uncovered by our experiments are linked to the discreteness of phonological form using the mathematics of nonlinear dynamics. Key words: vowel harmony; phonetics-phonology relation; non-linear dynamics; Hungarian. 1

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Citation Context ... For any first-order dynamical system, there exist methods allowing us to compute the probability distribution function by finding a stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation (see Haken 1977; =-=Freidlin & Wentzell 1984-=-). An example of a probability density function corresponding to a bi-stable potential (two attractors present) is shown below. Figure 2 : V(x) and probability distribution function p(x). It can be se... |

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Citation Context ..., it is called the trigger and the suffix vowel the target of the harmony process. Phonetic investigations have shown that vowels exert influences on neighboring vowels across intervening consonants (=-=Öhman, 1966-=-). Such ‘V-to-V coarticulation’ effects are observed as quantitative, phonetic patterns whose degree varies depending on the quality of the intervening consonants, stress distribution, and other facto... |

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Citation Context ...ing agreement between vowels that are not in consecutive syllables (e.g., papír-nak), three stable distributional patterns have been observed in the phonology of transparent vowels (e.g., Vago, 1980; =-=Kaun 1995-=-; Benus, 2005). First, stems with only transparent vowels (T stems) may trigger both front and back suffixes. The majority of T stems trigger front suffixes (cím-nek ‘address-Dative’, szél-nek ‘wind-D... |

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Citation Context ...ts are generally assumed to provide a natural phonetic basis to vowel harmony, a categorical version of V-to-V coarticulation where the suffix vowels are maximally coarticulated with the stem vowels (=-=Fowler, 1983-=-; Ohala, 1994). In many languages with vowel harmony, however, one also finds vowels that disagree with their adjacent vowels. These vowels appear in so-called disharmonic stems and have been traditio... |

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Citation Context ...l systems. 2 Background Notions from Dynamics We begin by a general mathematical formulation for the simplest class of non-linear dynamical systems, namely, first-order, autonomous dynamical systems (=-=Percival & Richards, 1982-=-). Any such system can be described by a differential equation x & = f ( x) , where f(x) is a nonlinear function of x, x is the state of the system, which can be thought of as the position of a partic... |

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Citation Context ...ly assumed to provide a natural phonetic basis to vowel harmony, a categorical version of V-to-V coarticulation where the suffix vowels are maximally coarticulated with the stem vowels (Fowler, 1983; =-=Ohala, 1994-=-). In many languages with vowel harmony, however, one also finds vowels that disagree with their adjacent vowels. These vowels appear in so-called disharmonic stems and have been traditionally divided... |

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Citation Context ...as í in zafír-ban), we measured the maximal horizontal advancement of the TB and TD receivers during the production of the transparent vowel (‘max’ in Figure 4). Our second technique uses ultrasound (=-=Stone 1997-=-) to provide 2D images of almost the complete surface of the tongue at its midline, during the production of transparent vowels. First, the frame with the most advanced tongue position was determined ... |

11 |
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Citation Context ...-to-V coarticulation’ effects are observed as quantitative, phonetic patterns whose degree varies depending on the quality of the intervening consonants, stress distribution, and other factors (e.g., =-=Recasens, 1999-=-). V-to-V coarticulation effects are generally assumed to provide a natural phonetic basis to vowel harmony, a categorical version of V-to-V coarticulation where the suffix vowels are maximally coarti... |

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Citation Context ...t vowels, we conducted for the first time a systematic study of their articulatory properties using two experimental techniques.sThe first technique, EMMA (Electro-magnetic Midsagittal Articulometry, =-=Perkell et al. 1992-=-), uses an electro-magnetic field to track the movements of small receivers attached to the articulators. Figure 4 : Articulator kinematics as recorded with EMMA. Figure 4 shows the horizontal (dashed... |

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Citation Context ... have (at least) a bistable (two-attractor) potential to capture the presence of two stable forms of a suffix, front and back. A polynomial of degree less than three allows for at most one attractor (=-=Arnold 2000-=-). Hence, the simplest model for suffix choice can be specified by a cubic polynomial. A good candidate for f(x,R) is the ‘tilted’ anharmonic oscillator, whose 3 dynamics are described by f ( x, R) = ... |

5 |
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Citation Context ...chology and emphasizes that surface data are a function of competence with added noise, and both competence as well as the nature of the function mapping competence onto surface data must be studied (=-=Kosslyn, 1978-=-). In this paper, we follow Kosslyn’s approach, focusing on two central questions: How is the discreteness of a phonological system related to the continuity of the speech signal? What kinds of formal... |

1 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nt between vowels that are not in consecutive syllables (e.g., papír-nak), three stable distributional patterns have been observed in the phonology of transparent vowels (e.g., Vago, 1980; Kaun 1995; =-=Benus, 2005-=-). First, stems with only transparent vowels (T stems) may trigger both front and back suffixes. The majority of T stems trigger front suffixes (cím-nek ‘address-Dative’, szél-nek ‘wind-Dative’), but ... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...he interval. For any first-order dynamical system, there exist methods allowing us to compute the probability distribution function by finding a stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation (see =-=Haken 1977-=-; Freidlin & Wentzell 1984). An example of a probability density function corresponding to a bi-stable potential (two attractors present) is shown below. Figure 2 : V(x) and probability distribution f... |