## Environmental bisimulations for higher-order languages (2007)

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Venue: | In Twenty-Second Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science |

Citations: | 33 - 10 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Sangiorgi07environmentalbisimulations,

author = {Davide Sangiorgi},

title = {Environmental bisimulations for higher-order languages},

booktitle = {In Twenty-Second Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science},

year = {2007},

pages = {293--302},

publisher = {IEEE}

}

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### Abstract

Developing a theory of bisimulation in higher-order languages can be hard. Particularly challenging can be: (1) the proof of congruence, as well as enhancements of the bisimulation proof method with “up-to context ” techniques, and (2) obtaining definitions and results that scale to languages with different features. To meet these challenges, we present environmental bisimulations, a form of bisimulation for higher-order languages, and its basic theory. We consider four representative calculi: pure λ-calculi (call-by-name and call-byvalue), call-by-value λ-calculus with higher-order store, and then Higher-Order π-calculus. In each case: we present the basic properties of environmental bisimilarity, including congruence; we show that it coincides with contextual equivalence; we develop some up-to techniques, including up-to context, as examples of possible enhancements of the associated bisimulation method. Unlike previous approaches (such as applicative bisimulations, logical relations, Sumii-Pierce-Koutavas-Wand), our method does not require induction/indices on evaluation derivation/steps (which may complicate the proofs of congruence, transitivity, and the combination with up-to techniques), or sophisticated methods such as Howe’s for proving congruence. It also scales from the pure λ-calculi to the richer calculi with simple congruence proofs. 1