## A General Model and Analysis of Physical Layer Capture in 802.11 Networks (2006)

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Venue: | In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM |

Citations: | 16 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Chang06ageneral,

author = {Hoon Chang and Vishal Misra},

title = {A General Model and Analysis of Physical Layer Capture in 802.11 Networks},

booktitle = {In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM},

year = {2006}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Abstract — While packet capture has been observed in real implementations of 802.11 devices, there is a lack of accurate models that describe the phenomenon. We present a general analytical model and an iterative method that predicts error probabilities and throughputs of packet transmissions with multiple senderreceiver pairs. Our model offers a more accurate prediction than previous work by taking into account the cumulative strength of interference signals and using the BER model to convert a signal to interference and noise ratio value to a bit error probability. This permits the analysis of packet reception at any transmission rate with interference from neighbors at any set of locations. We also prove that our iterative method converges, and we verify the accuracy of our model through simulations in Qualnet. Last, we present a rate assignment algorithm to reduce the average delay as an application of our analysis. I.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...f Qualnet with a decreasing timer as specified in the 802.11 standard. E. Simulation Parameters 1) Radio Channel Model: We validate our analysis model and algorithm, using the two-ray path loss model =-=[20]-=-. Multipath fading is not considered. As we mentioned in the previous section. However, other physical layer effect including multipath fading can be take into consideration with interference function... |

1060 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bability. If each transmission experiences errors with different probabilities, the assumption is invalid. [2] does not take MAC operations into consideration. Traditional 802.11 DCF analysis such as =-=[11]-=-, [12] use the same assumption that the error probability of a transmission is the constant and equal for all nodes. This assumption cannot handle packet captures at differing sender-receiver distance... |

289 |
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Citation Context ...in all cases, our algorithm always achieves average delay less than or at least equal to the minimums of schemes 1 and 2. We also compares our assignment algorithm with Lucent AutoRate Fallback (ARF) =-=[22]-=-. In Figure 14, our algorithm’s resulting delays are up to 10 percent smaller than what is achieved using the ARF scheme. That is because traditional rate adaptation schemes automatically choose the a... |

264 | Linear multiuser receivers: effective interference, effective bandwidth and user capacity
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Citation Context ...ror probability at transmission rate ri. In our method, fri first computes the total signal strength from nodes in a given set J and calculates the signal to noise and interference ratio (SNIR) as in =-=[15]-=-. With the result, it maps the SNIR to a bit error probability using the mapping table we derive from Qualnet, and finally calculates a packet error probability with a given packet size. Other mapping... |

155 |
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Citation Context ...ond units. The next three sections explain what the problems that exhibited these behaviors are and how we accounted for and fixed them in our simulations. B. Fairness and EIFS In the 802.11 standard =-=[18]-=-, the EIFS must be used by the 802.11 MAC layer (DCF) whenever a frame transmission begins but does not result in the correct reception of a complete MAC frame. If a node is already in its EIFS durati... |

134 | Effects of wireless physical layer modeling in mobile ad hoc networks
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Citation Context ...ever, these works assume that only transmissions from neighboring nodes within a circular area can collide, and that all transmissions involved in a collision completely fail. However, the authors of =-=[8]-=- point out that the cumulative strength of interference affect the absolute performance of a protocol. In this paper, we provide an analytical model to describe the general effect of interference, inc... |

106 |
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Citation Context ...12] use the same assumption that the error probability of a transmission is the constant and equal for all nodes. This assumption cannot handle packet captures at differing sender-receiver distances. =-=[13]-=- provides one of the first analytical models of the IEEE 802.11 DCF where both capture and hidden terminals are considered. However, the authors draw a virtual circle around a sender and a receiver an... |

79 | Sniffing out the correct Physical Layer Capture model
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with the network simulator Qualnet to support the analysis in the previous section. In Section VI, we present our algorithm to reduce expected delays, and conclude in section VII. II. RELATED WORK In =-=[9]-=- and [10], the authors perform real experiments with 802.11 implementations that demonstrate the effect of packet capturing. In [9], the authors empirically show that physical layer capture in 802.11b... |

69 | Source-tree routing in wireless networks
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Citation Context ...he maximum retransmission number is 7, the same as the 802.11 default value. Each sender and receiver pair is connected in ad hoc mode. We use the STAR (Source Tree Adaptive Routing) routing protocol =-=[21]-=- to prevent the routing protocol from obstructing data transmissions. The protocol operates in LORA mode, where STAR attempts to provide viable, if not necessarily optimal (according to delay metrics)... |

64 | Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “A scalable model for channel access protocols in multihop ad hoc networks,” in MobiCom
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Citation Context ...e has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point [2], [3], [4], [5]. Moreover, these papers consider simplified models of 802.11 DCF operations. Only =-=[6]-=- and [7] provide a model for networks with multiple senders and receivers running a collision avoidance protocol such as 802.11 DCF. However, these works assume that only transmissions from neighborin... |

34 | Garcia-Luna-Aceves, ”Performance of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Single-Channel Ad Hoc Networks - Wang, J |

24 |
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Citation Context ...on. This phenomenon is called physical layer capture [1]. Most research on physical layer capture has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point [2], =-=[3]-=-, [4], [5]. Moreover, these papers consider simplified models of 802.11 DCF operations. Only [6] and [7] provide a model for networks with multiple senders and receivers running a collision avoidance ... |

21 | Capture effect in ieee 802.11 basic service area under influence of rayleigh fading and near/far effect
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...his phenomenon is called physical layer capture [1]. Most research on physical layer capture has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point [2], [3], =-=[4]-=-, [5]. Moreover, these papers consider simplified models of 802.11 DCF operations. Only [6] and [7] provide a model for networks with multiple senders and receivers running a collision avoidance proto... |

20 | A capacity analysis for the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty. If each transmission experiences errors with different probabilities, the assumption is invalid. [2] does not take MAC operations into consideration. Traditional 802.11 DCF analysis such as [11], =-=[12]-=- use the same assumption that the error probability of a transmission is the constant and equal for all nodes. This assumption cannot handle packet captures at differing sender-receiver distances. [13... |

17 |
Unfairness and Capture Behaviour in 802.11 Adhoc Networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... network simulator Qualnet to support the analysis in the previous section. In Section VI, we present our algorithm to reduce expected delays, and conclude in section VII. II. RELATED WORK In [9] and =-=[10]-=-, the authors perform real experiments with 802.11 implementations that demonstrate the effect of packet capturing. In [9], the authors empirically show that physical layer capture in 802.11b occurs m... |

11 |
Probability of Capture and Rejection of Primary Multiple Access Interference in Spread Spectrum Networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ven with the existing interference, when a client is within a few meters of its access point, transmissions can still be received through a collision. This phenomenon is called physical layer capture =-=[1]-=-. Most research on physical layer capture has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point [2], [3], [4], [5]. Moreover, these papers consider simplifie... |

3 |
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- “On
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...henomenon is called physical layer capture [1]. Most research on physical layer capture has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point [2], [3], [4], =-=[5]-=-. Moreover, these papers consider simplified models of 802.11 DCF operations. Only [6] and [7] provide a model for networks with multiple senders and receivers running a collision avoidance protocol s... |

3 | Improving fairness in IEEE 802.11 using enhanced carrier sensing
- Li, Nandi, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...three senders are almost the same as shown in Table I. To address this problem, we introduce the following two approaches. Z. Li et al also present a solution with modification of the 802.11 protocol =-=[19]-=-. 1) No EIFS duration: if all nodes are within the same carrier-sensing range, we do not need to use the EIFS duration. Acknowledgments have a higher priority and senders defer their transmissions by ... |

2 |
On the throughput of an IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN system with terminals under heterogeneous radio conditions
- Pan, Sato, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ity for node i. Ifpi is equal to zero, packets from node i are completely captured by its receiver, which is not modeled by Bianchi’s work. Similar work with different error probabilities is found in =-=[14]-=-. Given the error probability, MAC protocols can be viewed as dynamic systems whose feedback information is the probability pi and the corresponding output is the transmission probability τi at each s... |

1 |
Ugweje, “Analysis of capture probability performance techniques for wireless lan
- Zhao, C
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...llision. This phenomenon is called physical layer capture [1]. Most research on physical layer capture has focused only on infrastructure networks where many client nodes transmit to one access point =-=[2]-=-, [3], [4], [5]. Moreover, these papers consider simplified models of 802.11 DCF operations. Only [6] and [7] provide a model for networks with multiple senders and receivers running a collision avoid... |