## On double-link failure recovery in WDM optical networks (2002)

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Venue: | in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM |

Citations: | 11 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Choi02ondouble-link,

author = {Hongsik Choi and Suresh Subramaniam and Hyeong-ah Choi},

title = {On double-link failure recovery in WDM optical networks},

booktitle = {in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM},

year = {2002},

pages = {808--816}

}

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### Abstract

Abstract — Network survivability is a crucial requirement in high-speed optical networks. Typical approaches of providing survivability have considered the failure of a single component such as a link or a node. In this paper, we consider a failure model in which any two links in the network may fail in an arbitrary order. Three loopback methods of recovering from double-link failures are presented. The first two methods require the identification of the failed links, while the third one does not. However, precomputing the backup paths for the third method is more difficult than for the first two. A heuristic algorithm that pre-computes backup paths for links is presented. Numerical results comparing the performance of our algorithm with other approaches suggests that it is possible to achieve ¢¡£¡¥¤ recovery from double-link failures with a modest increase in backup capacity. Index Terms—Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), loopback recovery, restoration, double-link failures, 3-edge-connected graph. I.

### Citations

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...il, the graph must be 3-connected. For simplicity of explanation, let us assume this to be the case. When this is not the case, the failure of some edge pairs cannot be tolerated. By Menger’s theore=-=m [10]-=-, a graph iss-connected if and only if there existsedge-disjoint paths between every pair of nodes in the graph. It is also possible to find these edge-disjoint paths easily (e.g., by a simple applica... |

323 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...case of link failures. Traditional optical networks have tended to take the form of point-to-point WDM transmission links or rings. Well-known protection mechanisms such � � � as � � � and=-= protection [3]-=- are used for point-to-point links. There are two kinds of protection schemes for other networks: link protection and path protection. In link protection, an alternate lightpath (called as a backup li... |

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Citation Context ...uaranteed [7]. Note that the problem of finding the minimal backup digraph contains the problem of finding whether a Hamiltonian cycle 2 exists in a digraph, which is a well-known NP-complete problem =-=[8]-=-. The existing methods for link protection are designed for single link failures. As we explain in the next section, double link failures must also be considered in the context of network survivabilit... |

78 |
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- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctivity between the nodes, but not the physical routing of the links. The physical routing of links is dictated by right of way which is often obtained from railroad, thruways, and pipeline companies =-=[9]-=-. As an example, a link from New York to Boston and from New York to Washington may be physically routed together for some distance, e.g., along the Lincoln Tunnel. Figure 1 shows a possible physical ... |

38 | Protection cycles in mesh WDM networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...irected graph (digraph). Recovery from single-link failures requires the graph to be 2-edge connected, 1 so let us assume that a 2-connected digraph is given. In the double cycle cover method of [4], =-=[5]-=-, the links of the digraph are covered by two directed cycles such that each link is covered by a cycle in each direction exactly once. A set of cycles that has this property can be found in polynomia... |

32 |
Automatic protection switching for link failures in optical networks with bi-directional links
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y a directed graph (digraph). Recovery from single-link failures requires the graph to be 2-edge connected, 1 so let us assume that a 2-connected digraph is given. In the double cycle cover method of =-=[4]-=-, [5], the links of the digraph are covered by two directed cycles such that each link is covered by a cycle in each direction exactly once. A set of cycles that has this property can be found in poly... |

21 | Capacity performance of dynamic provisioning in optical networks
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- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...echanisms. Node failures occur due to the failure of equipment at nodes such as switches. These equipment are typically protected within the node by redundant equipment (including redundant switches) =-=[2]-=-. The other type of failure is a channel failure in which the equipment on a single wavelength channel such as transmitter or receiver fails. These failures cause a single lightpath to fail and typica... |

17 |
WDM loop-back recovery in mesh networks
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...not being able to guarantee recovery when the graph is non-planar, the above technique has the disadvantage of requiring wavelength conversion when there is a single fiber in each direction of a link =-=[6]. -=-Accordingly, another method of link protection was presented in [6]. In this method, instead of forming cycles, a 2-connected directed subgraph � that covers all nodes is obtained. Another subgraph ... |

16 |
Capacity Versus Robustness: A Tradeoff for Link Restoration in Mesh Networks
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- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...k BA are recovered using protection wavelengths on directed path BA in subgraph � . This method is applicable to non-planar graphs as well. A variation of the above method has recently been presente=-=d [7]. There,-=- the authors propose a new algorithm to find the backup digraph (i.e., � � � � ). A goal of [7] is to find the minimal backup digraph, i.e., a digraph that contains the smallest number of edge... |