## Transducers from Rewrite Rules with Backreferences (1999)

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Citations: | 26 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Gerdemann99transducersfrom,

author = {Dale Gerdemann and Gertjan van Noord},

title = {Transducers from Rewrite Rules with Backreferences},

year = {1999}

}

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### Abstract

Context sensitive rewrite rules have been widely used in several areas of natural language processing, including syntax, morphology, phonology and speech processing.

### Citations

344 | Regular models of phonological rule systems
- Kaplan, Kay
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... such rewrite rules are equivalent to finite state transducers in the special case that they are not allowed to rewrite their own output. An algorithm for compilation into transducers was provided by =-=[5]-=-. Improvements and extensions to this algorithm have been provided by [7], [9], [8] and [12]. In this paper, the algorithm will be extended to provide a limited form of backreferencing. Backreferencin... |

307 | Partial parsing via finite-state cascades
- Abney
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tional linguistics techniques. One particularly interesting example where backreferences are essential is cascaded deterministic (longest match) finite state parsing as described for example in Abney =-=[2]-=- and various papers in [14]. Clearly, the standard rewrite rules do not apply in this domain. If NP is an NP recognizer, it would not do to say NP ⇒ [NP]/λ ρ. Nothing would force the string matched by... |

84 | Deterministic partof-speech tagging with state transducers
- Roche, Schabes
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ackreferencing. Backreferencing has been implicit in previous research, such as in the “batch rules” of [5], bracketing transducers for finite-state parsing [8], and the “LocalExtension” operation of =-=[13]-=-. The explicit use of backreferencing leads to more elegant and general solutions. Backreferencing is widely used in editors, scripting languages and other tools employing regular expressions [3]. For... |

77 | Regular Expressions for Language Engineering
- Karttunen, Chanod, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... recall the nth such string. The expression \(a*\)b\1 matches strings of the form a n ba n . Unrestricted use of backreferencing thus can introduce non-regular languages. For NLP finite state calculi =-=[6, 16]-=- this is unacceptable. The form of backreferences introduced in this paper will therefore be restricted. The central case of an allowable backreference is: x ⇒ T(x)/λ ρ (1) This says that each string ... |

76 | An efficient compiler for weighted rewrite rules
- Mohri, Sproat
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y are not allowed to rewrite their own output. An algorithm for compilation into transducers was provided by [5]. Improvements and extensions to this algorithm have been provided by [7], [9], [8] and =-=[12]-=-. In this paper, the algorithm will be extended to provide a limited form of backreferencing. Backreferencing has been implicit in previous research, such as in the “batch rules” of [5], bracketing tr... |

65 | The replace operator
- Karttunen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cial case that they are not allowed to rewrite their own output. An algorithm for compilation into transducers was provided by [5]. Improvements and extensions to this algorithm have been provided by =-=[7]-=-, [9], [8] and [12]. In this paper, the algorithm will be extended to provide a limited form of backreferencing. Backreferencing has been implicit in previous research, such as in the “batch rules” of... |

63 |
Formal Aspects of Phonological Description
- Johnson
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...licit use of backreferencing leads to more elegant and general solutions. 1 Introduction Context sensitive rewrite rules have been widely used in several areas of natural language processing. Johnson =-=[4]-=- has shown that such rewrite rules are equivalent to finite state transducers in the special case that they are not allowed to rewrite their own output. An algorithm for compilation into transducers w... |

55 | Fido: The logic-automaton connection in practice - Mona - 1998 |

45 | Directed replacement
- Karttunen
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...that they are not allowed to rewrite their own output. An algorithm for compilation into transducers was provided by [5]. Improvements and extensions to this algorithm have been provided by [7], [9], =-=[8]-=- and [12]. In this paper, the algorithm will be extended to provide a limited form of backreferencing. Backreferencing has been implicit in previous research, such as in the “batch rules” of [5], brac... |

38 | Mastering regular expressions. O’Reilly and Associates - Friedl - 1997 |

35 | Rapid incremental parsing with repair
- Abney
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...form of implicit conversion is standard in the finite state calculus. Note that 0 and 1 are perfectly ordinary alphabet symbols, which may also be used within a replacement. For example, the sequence =-=[1,0]-=- represents a non-marker use of the symbol 1. 2.1.3 Utilities Before describing the algorithm, it will be helpful to have at our disposal a few general tools, most of which were described already in [... |

32 |
The proper treatment of optimality theory in computational phonology
- Karttunen
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o,u}). In such macro definitions, Prolog variables can be used in order to define new n-ary regular expression operators in terms of existing operators. For instance, the lenient composition operator =-=[10]-=- is defined by: macro(priority_union(Q,R), {Q, ~domain(Q) o R}). macro(lenient_composition(R,C), priority_union(R o C,R)). 2[] empty string [E1,...En] concatenation of E1 ...En {} empty language {E1,... |

15 | An Extendible Regular Expression Compiler for Finite-state Approaches
- Noord, Gerdemann
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssion operators can be defined in terms of operations on the underlying automaton. In such cases, Prolog hooks for manipulating states and transitions may be used. This functionality has been used in =-=[17]-=- to provide an implementation of the algorithm in [12]. 2.1.2 Treatment of Markers Previous algorithms for compiling rewrite rules into transducers have followed [5] by introducing special marker symb... |

14 |
Mastering Regular Expressions. O’Reilly
- Friedl
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of [13]. The explicit use of backreferencing leads to more elegant and general solutions. Backreferencing is widely used in editors, scripting languages and other tools employing regular expressions =-=[3]-=-. For example, Emacs uses the special brackets \( and \) to capture strings along with the notation \n to recall the nth such string. The expression \(a*\)b\1 matches strings of the form a n ba n . Un... |

14 | Regular expressions for language engineering. Natural Language Engineering - Karttunen, Chanod, et al. - 1997 |

6 | Formal Aspects of Phonological Description. Mouton: The Hague - Johnson - 1972 |

1 |
Fsa utilities
- Noord
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... recall the nth such string. The expression \(a*\)b\1 matches strings of the form a n ba n . Unrestricted use of backreferencing thus can introduce non-regular languages. For NLP finite state calculi =-=[6, 16]-=- this is unacceptable. The form of backreferences introduced in this paper will therefore be restricted. The central case of an allowable backreference is: x ⇒ T(x)/λ ρ (1) This says that each string ... |