## Adaptation in Evolutionary Computation: A Survey (1997)

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Venue: | In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC 97 |

Citations: | 49 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Hinterding97adaptationin,

author = {Robert Hinterding and Zbigniew Michalewicz and Agoston E. Eiben},

title = {Adaptation in Evolutionary Computation: A Survey},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC 97},

year = {1997},

pages = {65--69},

publisher = {IEEE Press}

}

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### Abstract

Abstract � Adaptation of parameters and operators is one of the most important and promising areas of research in evolutionary computation � it tunes the algorithm to the problem while solving the problem. In this paper we develop a classi�cation of adaptation on the basis of the mechanisms used � and the level at which adaptation operates within the evolutionary algorithm. The classi�cation covers all forms of adaptation in evolutionary computation and suggests fur� ther research. I.

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Citation Context ...probability mut% will increase from 0:5 to 0:8 as the number of generations increases to G. This method of adaptation was used also in defining a mutation operator for floating-point representations (=-=Michalewicz, 1996-=-): non-uniform mutation. For a parent ~x, if the element x k is selected for Type Static Dynamic Level Deterministic Adaptive Self-adaptive Environment S E-D E-A E-SA Population S P-D P-A P-SA Individ... |

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Citation Context ... 1=5 then decrease the step size. Another example is Davis's `adaptive operator fitness', which used feedback from the performance of reproduction operators to adjust their probability of being used (=-=Davis, 1991-=-). Adaption was also used to change the objective function by increasing or decreasing penalty coefficients for violated constraints. For example, Bean & Hadj-Alouane (1992) designed a penalty functio... |

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Citation Context ...ot the new value persists or propagates throughout the population. Early examples of this type of adaptation include Rechenberg's `1=5 success rule', which was used to vary the step size of mutation (=-=Rechenberg, 1973-=-). This rule states that the ratio of successful mutations to all mutations should be 1=5, hence if the ratio is greater than 1=5 then increase the step size, and if the ration is less than 1=5 then d... |

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Citation Context ... level adaptation (one mutation step size per component) or with two types of component level adaptation where both the mutation step size and rotation angle is selfadapted for individual components (=-=Schwefel, 1977-=-). Hinterding it et al. (1996) combine global-level adaptation of the population size with individual level self-adaptation of the mutation step size for optimising numeric functions. Combining forms ... |

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Citation Context ...dscapes. ffl control parameters. There have been various experiments aimed at adaptive probabilities of 1 By strategy parameters, we mean the parameters of the EA, not those of the problem operators (=-=Davis, 1989-=-; Julstrom, 1995; Srinivas & Patnaik, 1994). However, much more remains to be done. In this paper we develop a comprehensive classification of adaptation and give examples of their use. The classifica... |

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Citation Context ...rs. There have been various experiments aimed at adaptive probabilities of 1 By strategy parameters, we mean the parameters of the EA, not those of the problem operators (Davis, 1989; Julstrom, 1995; =-=Srinivas & Patnaik, 1994-=-). However, much more remains to be done. In this paper we develop a comprehensive classification of adaptation and give examples of their use. The classification is based on the mechanism of adaptati... |

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Citation Context ... later stages. Deterministic dynamic adaptation was also used for changing the objective function of the problem; the point was to increase the penalties for violated constraints with evolution time (=-=Joines & Houck, 1994; Mi-=-chalewicz & Attia, 1994). Joines & Houck used the following formula: F (~x) = f(~x) + (C \Theta t) ff P m j=1 f fi j (~x), whereas Michalewicz and Attia experimented with F (~x; �� ) = f(~x) + 1 2... |

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Citation Context ...parameters held within individuals and whose value affects only that individual. Examples are: the adaptation of the mutation step size in ESs, EP, and GAs; the adaptation of crossover points in GAs (=-=Schaffer & Morishima, 1987-=-). Arabas it et al.(1994) describe a method for adapting population size by defining age of individuals; the size of the population after single iteration is PopSize(t+1) = PopSize(t)+N (t)\GammaD(t),... |

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Citation Context ...control parameters. There have been various experiments aimed at adaptive probabilities of 1 By strategy parameters, we mean the parameters of the EA, not those of the problem operators (Davis, 1989; =-=Julstrom, 1995-=-; Srinivas & Patnaik, 1994). However, much more remains to be done. In this paper we develop a comprehensive classification of adaptation and give examples of their use. The classification is based on... |

63 | Adapting Crossover in Evolutionary Algorithms - Spears - 1995 |

52 |
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Citation Context ...nistic dynamic adaptation was also used for changing the objective function of the problem; the point was to increase the penalties for violated constraints with evolution time (Joines & Houck, 1994; =-=Michalewicz & Attia, 1994). Joine-=-s & Houck used the following formula: F (~x) = f(~x) + (C \Theta t) ff P m j=1 f fi j (~x), whereas Michalewicz and Attia experimented with F (~x; �� ) = f(~x) + 1 2�� P m j=1 f 2 j (~x). In b... |

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1 | Every niching mehtod has its niche: Fitness sharing and implicit sharing compared - Darwen, Yao - 1996 |

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1 | Adaptive probabilities of cross� over and mutation in genetic algorithms - Srinivas, Patnaik - 1994 |