## A Concept Exploration Method for Product Family Design (1998)

Venue: | in Mechanical Engineering. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology |

Citations: | 29 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Simpson98aconcept,

author = {Timothy W. Simpson and Janet K. Allen and Jonathan S. Colton and Russell G. Heikes and W. Rosen and Daniel P. Schrage},

title = {A Concept Exploration Method for Product Family Design},

institution = {in Mechanical Engineering. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology},

year = {1998}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

ii

### Citations

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Citation Context ... 369scombinations to find the minimax design is too time consuming if not impossible. Hence, an efficient method to search for good designs is needed. Toward this end, a genetic algorithm (see, e.g., =-=Goldberg, 1989-=-) based design generator is developed to create minimax Latin hypercube designs. Genetic algorithms have been shown to work well for large combinatorial problems, and genetic algorithms have been succ... |

418 |
Empirical Model-Building and Response Surfaces
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Citation Context ...atforms 66 Figure 2.17 General Approach to Metamodeling (Koch, et al., 1997) 69 Figure 2.18 Techniques for Metamodeling 72 Figure 2.19 Sample Two-Variable Second-Order Response Surfaces (adapted from =-=Box and Draper, 1987-=-) 74 Figure 2.20 Example Classical and Space Filling Experimental Designs 83 Figure 2.21 Central Composite Design 84 Figure 2.22 Box-Behnken Design 84 Figure 2.23 Latin Hypercube Design 86 Figure 2.24... |

197 |
Statistics for spatial data. Revised edition
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Citation Context ...cal analysis and experimental design software Kriging Metamodeling technique from geostatistics which relies on the spatial correlation of sample data to predict new values of a response, see, e.g., (=-=Cressie, 1993-=-) xxvisLRL Lower Requirement Limit Market Segmentation Grid An attention directing tool used to map product platform leveraging strategies within a product family MAX Maximum absolute error μ Mean val... |

186 | Bayesian experimental design: A review
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Citation Context ...gns and maximum mean squared error designs for use with deterministic computer experiments. Finally, a review of several Bayesian experimental designs for linear and nonlinear regression is given in (=-=Chaloner and Verdinelli, 1995-=-). Comparisons of the different types of space filling experimental designs are few; often the novel space filling design being described is compared against Latin hypercube designs and random samplin... |

160 |
Neural networks: A review from a statistical perspective
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Citation Context ...zed which would push the limits of the kriging metamodeling software (i.e., fitting the model, matrix inversion, etc.). Finally, additional metamodeling techniques such as neural networks (see, e.g., =-=Cheng and Titterington, 1994-=-; Hajela and Berke, 1992; Rumelhart, et al., 1994; Widrow, et al., 1994) also can be compared to kriging given the size and complexity of the problem. 8.4.4 Configuration Design of Common Automotive P... |

140 | Global optimization of statistical functions with simulated annealing
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Citation Context ... maximum likelihood estimate, or “best” guess values, for θ k based on the given sample data. This process is then repeated for each response, y i . Currently, the simulated annealing algorithm from (=-=Goffe, et al., 1994-=-) is employed to perform the optimization; his algorithm is on-line at the referenced web site. A.1.2 Validating a Kriging Model Once the MLEs for each theta have been found, the next step is to valid... |

103 |
Bayesian Prediction of Deterministic Functions, With Applications to the Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments
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Citation Context ...or simulation code is queried. In the next section, space filling and classical experimental designs are discussed. 2.4.3 Classical and Space Filling Experimental Designs Many researchers (see, e.g., =-=Currin, et al., 1991-=-; Sacks and Schiller, 1988) argue that classical experimental designs, such as the central composite designs and BoxBehnken designs, are not well-suited for sampling deterministic computer experiments... |

95 | A Trust Region Framework for Managing the Use of Approximation Models in Optimization
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- 1998
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Citation Context ...accurate, lest they lead the optimization algorithm into regions of bad designs. Trust Region approaches (see e.g., Lewis, 1996; Rodriguez, et al., 1997) and the Model Management framework (see e.g., =-=Alexandrov, et al., 1997-=-; Booker, et al., 1995) have been developed to ensure that optimization algorithms are not led astray by inaccurate approximations. In this work, however, the focus has been on developing the approxim... |

92 |
Introduction to Optimum Design
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Citation Context ...τ ) ≤ 40,000 2 2 1/2 g2 (x) = (σ2 + 3τ ) ≤ 40,000 • Bounds: 2.5 in. ≤ d ≤ 10 in. 2.5 in. ≤ h ≤ 10 in. 0.1 in. ≤ t ≤ 1.0 in. Minimize: Volume, V(x) = 2L(2dt + 2ht - 4t 2 ) For more information: • see (=-=Arora, 1989-=-) • see Appendix D, Section D.4sFour Variable Problems The four variable problems being investigated are the design of a welded beam, Figure 5.6, and design of a pressure vessel, Figure 5.7. The probl... |

61 |
Future Perfect
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Citation Context ... who coined the term mass customization, captures it best: “The more a company can deliver customized goods on a mass basis relative to their competition, the greater is their competitive advantage” (=-=Davis, 1987-=-). Simply stated, companies which offer customized goods at minimal extra cost have a competitive advantage over those that do not. Pine (1993) attributes the increasing attention on product variety a... |

57 | A Procedure for Robust Design: Minimizing Variations Caused by Noise Factors and Control Factors
- Chen, Allen, et al.
- 1996
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Citation Context ...6 Figure 1.2 Rolls-Royce RTM322 Engine (Rothwell and Gardiner, 1990) 8 Figure 1.3 Mathematical Form of a Compromise DSP (Mistree, et al., 1993) 17 Figure 1.4 Steps and Tools of the RCEM (adapted from =-=Chen, et al., 1996-=-a) 19 Figure 1.5 RCEM Computer Infrastructure (adapted from Chen, et al., 1996a) 20 Figure 1.6 Overview of Dissertation Chapters 28 Figure 1.7 Pictorial Overview of the Dissertation 30 Figure 2.1 Tran... |

54 | A Review of Research in Mechanical Engineering Design - Finger, Dixon - 1989 |

52 | W.: “Some New Three Level Designs for the Study of Quantitative Variables
- Box, Behnken
- 1960
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Citation Context ...ader is again referred to (Simpson, et al., 1997) for a review of several studies comparing CCDs and other types of classical experimental designs. B.1.2 Box-Behnken Designs Box-Behnken (BB) designs (=-=Box and Behnken, 1960-=-; Myers and Montgomery, 1995) are a family of efficient three-level designs for fitting second-order response surfaces that are formed by combining 2 k factorial and incomplete block designs. They are... |

32 | A Concept Exploration Method for Determining Robust Top-Level Specifications
- Chen, Allen, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 Figure 1.2 Rolls-Royce RTM322 Engine (Rothwell and Gardiner, 1990) 8 Figure 1.3 Mathematical Form of a Compromise DSP (Mistree, et al., 1993) 17 Figure 1.4 Steps and Tools of the RCEM (adapted from =-=Chen, et al., 1996-=-a) 19 Figure 1.5 RCEM Computer Infrastructure (adapted from Chen, et al., 1996a) 20 Figure 1.6 Overview of Dissertation Chapters 28 Figure 1.7 Pictorial Overview of the Dissertation 30 Figure 2.1 Tran... |

31 | A New Approach to the Construction of Optimal Designs
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- 1993
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Citation Context ... (see, e.g., Box and Draper, 1987); D-optimal designs (see, e.g., Box and Draper, 1971; Giunta, et al., 1994; Mitchell, 1974; St. John and Draper, 1975); I-, A-, E-, and G-optimal designs (see, e.g., =-=Hardin and Sloane, 1993-=-; Myers and Montgomery, 1995); minimum bias designs (see, e.g., Myers and Montgomery, 1995; Venter and Haftka, 1997); and other hybrid designs (see, e.g., Giovannitti-Jensen and Myers, 1989; Myers and... |

25 |
The Taguchi Approach to Parameter Design
- Byrne, Taguchi
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e the quality of a product or process by not only striving to achieve performance targets but also by minimizing performance variation. Taguchi’s methods have been widely used in industry (see, e.g., =-=Byrne and Taguchi, 1987-=-; Phadke, 1989) for parameter and tolerance design. Reviews of such applications can be found in, e.g., (Nair, 1992). 52sIn robust design, the relationship between different types of design parameters... |

19 | Aircraft Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Using Design of Experiments Theory and Response Surface Modeling Methods - Giunta |

17 | Case studies in design and analysis of computer experiments - Booker - 1996 |

17 |
Architectures for product families
- Erens, Verhulst
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...product platform design is found. Perhaps the most developed method for product family design which currently exists is the work by Erens (1997). Erens, in conjunction with several of his colleagues (=-=Erens and Breuls, 1995-=-; Erens and Verhulst, 1997; Erens and Hegge, 1994; McKay, et al., 1996), develops a product modeling language for product variety. The primary focus is on the product modeling language as an efficient... |

15 | Designing Design Processes in Decision-Based Concurrent Engineering
- Bras, Mistree
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... specific analysis tools such as finite element analysis. The implementation of Decision-Based Design that is employed in this dissertation is the Decision Support Problem (DSP) Technique (see, e.g., =-=Bras and Mistree, 1991-=-), a technique that supports human judgment in designing systems that can be manufactured and maintained. In the DSP Technique, designing is defined as the process of converting information that chara... |

14 |
Global modeling for optimization: Boeing/IBM/Rice collaborative project
- Booker, Conn, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g techniques to recursively decompose the design space into subregions and fit each region with a separate model during design space refinement (Reddy, 1996). Finally, the Model Management Framework (=-=Booker, et al., 1995-=-; Dennis and Torczon, 1995) is being developed collaboratively by researchers at Boeing, IBM, and Rice to implement mathematically rigorous techniques to manage the use of approximation models in opti... |

12 |
Electronic Machinery Fundamentals
- Chapman
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re 6.2 Comparison of the Torque-Speed Characteristics of a Universal Motor Rated at 1/4 Hp and 8000 rpm when Operating on AC and DC Power Supplies (Martin, 1986) 195 Figure 6.3 An Idealized DC Motor (=-=Chapman, 1991-=-) 202 Figure 6.4 Model Geometry for a Universal Motor 204 Figure 6.5 Relative Permeability Versus Magnetizing Intensity for a Typical Piece of Steel (Chapman, 1991) 205 Figure 6.6 Universal Motor Mark... |

12 | The robust concept exploration method for enhancing concurrent systems design
- Chen, Allen, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation for several reasons, namely, • integration of robust design principles with the compromise DSP (see Section 2.3), • demonstrated effectiveness for complex systems and robust design, see, e.g., (=-=Chen, et al., 1997-=-), • increased computational efficiency achieved through metamodeling (see Section 2.4), and because it is a • domain independent method which is particularized easily through specification of a simul... |

12 |
Graphical assessment of the prediction capability of response surface designs
- Giovannitti-Jensen, Myers
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l designs (see, e.g., Hardin and Sloane, 1993; Myers and Montgomery, 1995); minimum bias designs (see, e.g., Myers and Montgomery, 1995; Venter and Haftka, 1997); and other hybrid designs (see, e.g., =-=Giovannitti-Jensen and Myers, 1989-=-; Myers and Montgomery, 1995) Space Filling Experimental Designs: median Latin hypercubes (see, e.g., Kalagnanam and Diwekar, 1997; McKay, et al., 1979); minimax and maximin designs (Johnson, et al., ... |

11 |
Robust designs
- Box, Draper
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...considered include the following: 308sClassical Experimental Designs: fractional factorial designs and small central composite designs (see, e.g., Box and Draper, 1987); D-optimal designs (see, e.g., =-=Box and Draper, 1971-=-; Giunta, et al., 1994; Mitchell, 1974; St. John and Draper, 1975); I-, A-, E-, and G-optimal designs (see, e.g., Hardin and Sloane, 1993; Myers and Montgomery, 1995); minimum bias designs (see, e.g.,... |

11 | Statistical Experimentation Methods for Achieving Affordable Concurrent Systems Design
- Chen, Allen, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation for several reasons, namely, • integration of robust design principles with the compromise DSP (see Section 2.3), • demonstrated effectiveness for complex systems and robust design, see, e.g., (=-=Chen, et al., 1997-=-), • increased computational efficiency achieved through metamodeling (see Section 2.4), and because it is a • domain independent method which is particularized easily through specification of a simul... |

11 |
Probabilistic Optimal Design Using Successive SurrogateProbabilityDensity
- 29Eggert, Mayne
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is introduced in the next section. D.5 DESIGN OF A WELDED BEAM This example is taken (Ragsdell and Phillips, 1976) and has been solved by several researchers studying design optimization (see, e.g., =-=Eggert and Mayne, 1993-=-; Kannan and Kramer, 1994; Sandgren, 1989). The objective is to minimize the total system cost of the welded beam structure shown in Figure D.5 subject to five constraints which define feasibility. Th... |

10 |
Neural Networks in Structural Analysis and Design: An Overview
- Hajela, Berke
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s of the kriging metamodeling software (i.e., fitting the model, matrix inversion, etc.). Finally, additional metamodeling techniques such as neural networks (see, e.g., Cheng and Titterington, 1994; =-=Hajela and Berke, 1992-=-; Rumelhart, et al., 1994; Widrow, et al., 1994) also can be compared to kriging given the size and complexity of the problem. 8.4.4 Configuration Design of Common Automotive Platforms Balancing the n... |

9 |
Multi-Level Design Optimization: A Boeing/IBM/Rice Collaborative Project
- Booker, Conn, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ust region based approaches which incorporate approximations are being developed by researchers in an effort to capitalize on the potential of kriging metamodels (see, e.g., Alexandrov, et al., 1997; =-=Booker, et al., 1996-=-; Booker, et al., 1995; Cox and John, 1995; Dennis and Torczon, 1996; Osio and Amon, 1996; Schonlau, et al., 1997). Finally, alternative optimization algorithms for finding the “best” kriging model al... |

9 |
The measurement and operating benefits of component part commonality
- Collier
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...reater inventory reductions, exhibit less part variability, improve standardization, and shorten development and lead times because more parts are reused and fewer new parts have to be designed (cf., =-=Collier, 1981-=-). McDermott and Stock (1994) discuss the benefits of commonality on new product development time, inventory, and manufacturing; they also cite several researchers who have shown that part commonality... |

9 |
The Synthesis of Variety – Development of Product Families
- Erens
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m Leveraging in the Market Segmentation Grid (adapted from Meyer, 1997) 39 Figure 2.6 V 2 OC Rating vs. Commonality (from Martin and Ishii, 1997) 44 Figure 2.7 Representing a Family of Office Chairs (=-=Erens, 1997-=-) 46 Figure 2.8 Product Variety Decomposed into Systems, Modules, and Attributes (from Fujita and Ishii, 1997) 47 Figure 2.9 Robust Designs (from Rothwell and Gardiner, 1990) 50 Figure 2.10 Rolls Royc... |

7 |
Cooperation in aircraft design
- Bond, Ricci
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y, while follow-on phases are called project design or analysis. More detailed descriptions of the decisions made in each phase and the disciplines involved in aircraft design can be found in, e.g., (=-=Bond and Ricci, 1992-=-). Specifically, the efforts in this example are directed toward utilizing the computer within the traditional conceptual phase of aircraft design as it is defined in (Nicolai, 1984). Conceptual Desig... |

6 | Aggregate safety stock levels and component part commonality - Collier - 1982 |

6 |
Nozzle Flowfield Analysis with Particular Regard to 3D-Plug-Cluster Configurations
- Hagemann, Schley, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he ambient pressure and integrates well with launch vehicles (Rao, 1961). The flow field structure changes dramatically from low altitude to high altitude on the spike surface and in the base region (=-=Hagemann, et al., 1996-=-; Mueller and Sule, 1972; Rommel, et al., 1995). Additional flow is injected in the base region to create an aerodynamic spike (Iacobellis, et al., 1967) which gives the aerospike nozzle its name and ... |

5 |
13-16, "Metamodels for Simulation Input-Output Relations
- Barton
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...econd-order response surface can model are illustrated in Figure 2.19. Obviously, higher-order response surfaces can be used to model a non-linear design space; however, instabilities may arise (cf., =-=Barton, 1992-=-), or it may be too difficult to take a sufficient number of sample points in order to estimate all of the coefficients in the polynomial equation, particularly in high dimensions. Hence, many researc... |

4 |
2-4, "A Comparison of Approximation Modeling Techniques: Polynomial Versus Interpolating Models
- Giunta, Watson, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtures are chosen. Initial investigations revealed that a single θ parameter was insufficient to model the data accurately due to scaling of the design variables (a similar problem is encountered in (=-=Giunta, et al., 1998-=-)). Therefore, a simple 3-D exhaustive grid search with a refinable step size is used to find the maximum likelihood estimates for the three θ parameters needed to obtain the “best” kriging model. The... |

3 |
Foundations of Electrical Engineering
- Cogdell
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he motor. To formulate the model, it is necessary to derive equations for P, T, M, and η as functions of the design variables. The equations are based primarily on those given in (Chapman, 1991) and (=-=Cogdell, 1996-=-) for DC electric motors unless otherwise noted. Power The basic equation for power output of a motor is the input power minus losses: P = P in - P losses 196 [6.1]swhere the input power is the produc... |

3 |
Manufacturing and Sales Co-ordination for Product Variety
- Erens, Hegge
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... developed method for product family design which currently exists is the work by Erens (1997). Erens, in conjunction with several of his colleagues (Erens and Breuls, 1995; Erens and Verhulst, 1997; =-=Erens and Hegge, 1994-=-; McKay, et al., 1996), develops a product modeling language for product variety. The primary focus is on the product modeling language as an efficient representation of product architecture and modul... |

2 |
21-23, "A Flexible Approximation Model for Use with Optimization
- Balling, Clark
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th its corresponding constraints, bounds, and objective function. 380sD.1 DESIGN OF A TWO-BAR TRUSS The symmetric two-bar truss shown in Figure D.1 has been studied by several researchers (see, e.g., =-=Balling and Clark, 1992-=-; Schmit, 1981; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, et al., 1982). In this example, a single load case of 2P = 66,000 lbs is considered. The distance between the supports is 2B = 60 in. The two bars are identica... |

2 |
11-14, "Metamodeling: A State of the Art Review
- Barton
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s by a variety of names including DACE (Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments) modeling—the title of the inaugural paper by Sacks, et al. (1989)—and spatial correlation metamodeling (see, e.g., =-=Barton, 1994-=-). There are also several types of kriging (cf., Cressie, 1993): ordinary kriging, universal kriging, 75slognormal kriging, and trans-Gaussian kriging. In this dissertation, ordinary kriging is employ... |

2 |
13-16, "Managing Approximation Models in Optimization
- Dennis, Torczon
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ively decompose the design space into subregions and fit each region with a separate model during design space refinement (Reddy, 1996). Finally, the Model Management Framework (Booker, et al., 1995; =-=Dennis and Torczon, 1995-=-) is being developed collaboratively by researchers at Boeing, IBM, and Rice to implement mathematically rigorous techniques to manage the use of approximation models in optimization. 73sMany of the p... |

2 |
Why Universal Motors Turn On the Appliance Industry," http://www.gselectric.com/electric/univers4.htm
- Electric
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...RANGE 183 Figure 5.20 Effect of 25 and 33 Point DOE on MAX.RANGE 184 Figure 5.21 Pictorial Review of Chapter 5 and Preview of Chapter 6 188 Figure 6.1 Schematic of a Universal Motor (adapted from G.S.=-=Electric, 1997-=-) 193 Figure 6.2 Comparison of the Torque-Speed Characteristics of a Universal Motor Rated at 1/4 Hp and 8000 rpm when Operating on AC and DC Power Supplies (Martin, 1986) 195 Figure 6.3 An Idealized ... |

1 |
22-27, "Agile Manufacturing: This Is not Just Repackaging of Material Requirements Planning and Just-In-Time
- Abair
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he necessary variety for a product family; however, its focus is solely on modeling the product itself. Meanwhile, research in flexible, agile, and/or reconfigurable manufacturing systems (see, e.g., =-=Abair, 1995-=-; Anderson and Pine, 1997; Chinnaiah, et al., 1998; Dhumal, et al., 1996; Hormozi, 1994; Richards, 1996) focuses primarily on developing cost effective manufacturing systems to realize a wide variety ... |

1 |
14-16, "Kodak Fun Saver Camera Recycling
- Alexander
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in Section 1.1, there are a number of benefits to developing families of products, one of which is the ability to reuse and remanufacture components and 318smodules from one product to the next (cf., =-=Alexander, 1993-=-; Paula, 1997; Rothwell and Gardiner, 1990; Sanderson and Uzumeri, 1995). Product reuse is the act of reclaiming products (or parts of products) from a previous use and remanufacturing them for anothe... |

1 |
Chapter 5: Analysis of Variance; Designed Experiments," Statistical Models
- Chambers, Freeny, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Study Before Hypotheses 2 and 3 are tested, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to determine which factors have a significant effect on the accuracy of the resulting kriging model (see, e.g., (=-=Chambers, et al., 1992-=-; Montgomery, 1991) for more on ANOVA). The software package S-Plus4 (MathSoft, 1997) is used to analyze the data. The ANOVA is performed separately for each pair of two, three, and four variable prob... |

1 |
17-20, "Design-in-Modularity with Conceptual Robustness
- Chang, Ward
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...les in Section 2.3 by relating Rothwell and Gardiner’s concept of “robust design” for product families to the idea of a “conceptual noise factor” in a distributed design environment as introduced in (=-=Chang and Ward, 1995-=-; Chang, et al., 1994). This notion of a “conceptual noise factor” then is extended to scale factors within a scalable product platform, providing a means to abstract robust design principles for appl... |

1 |
6-11, "Distributed Design with Conceptual Robustness: A
- Chang, Ward, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...relating Rothwell and Gardiner’s concept of “robust design” for product families to the idea of a “conceptual noise factor” in a distributed design environment as introduced in (Chang and Ward, 1995; =-=Chang, et al., 1994-=-). This notion of a “conceptual noise factor” then is extended to scale factors within a scalable product platform, providing a means to abstract robust design principles for application in product fa... |

1 | Modularity and the - Chen, Rosen, et al. - 1994 |

1 |
A Robust Complex Exploration Method for Configuring Complex Systems
- Chen
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rid can be used to identify opportunities for platform leveraging in product family design. These posits are founded on and substantiated by the following references. • Posit 1.1 is substantiated in (=-=Chen, 1995-=-) by explicitly testing and verifying the efficiency and effectiveness of the RCEM for developing robust top-level design specifications for complex systems design. • Posit 1.2 is substantiated throug... |

1 |
18-22, "Use of Design Capability Indices to Satisfy a Ranged Set of Design Requirements
- Chen, Simpson, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 Figure 1.2 Rolls-Royce RTM322 Engine (Rothwell and Gardiner, 1990) 8 Figure 1.3 Mathematical Form of a Compromise DSP (Mistree, et al., 1993) 17 Figure 1.4 Steps and Tools of the RCEM (adapted from =-=Chen, et al., 1996-=-a) 19 Figure 1.5 RCEM Computer Infrastructure (adapted from Chen, et al., 1996a) 20 Figure 1.6 Overview of Dissertation Chapters 28 Figure 1.7 Pictorial Overview of the Dissertation 30 Figure 2.1 Tran... |