## Bluetooth Scatternet Formation for Single-Hop Ad Hoc Networks Based on Virtual Positions (2004)

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Venue: | IN ‘IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS |

Citations: | 2 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Wang04bluetoothscatternet,

author = {Yu Wang and Ivan Stojmenovic and Xiang-Yang Li},

title = {Bluetooth Scatternet Formation for Single-Hop Ad Hoc Networks Based on Virtual Positions },

booktitle = {IN ‘IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS},

year = {2004},

pages = {7--14},

publisher = {}

}

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### Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of scatternet formation for single-hop Bluetooth based personal area and ad hoc networks, with minimal communication overhead. In a single-hop ad hoc network, all wireless devices are in the radio vicinity of each other, e.g., electronic devices in a laboratory, or laptops in a conference room. Recent scatternet formation schemes by Li, Stojmenovic and Wang [1] are position based and were applied for multi-hop networks. These schemes are localized and can construct degree limited and connected piconets, without parking any node. They also limit to 7 the number of slave roles in one piconet. The creation and maintenance require small overhead in addition to maintaining location infor-mation for one-hop neighbors. In this article we apply this method to single-hop networks, by showing that position information is then not needed. Each node can simply select a virtual position, and communicate it to all neighbors in the neighbor discovery phase. Nodes then act according to the scheme by Li, Stojmenovic and Wang using such virtual positions instead of real ones. In addition, in this paper we use Delaunay triangulation instead of partial Delaunay triangulation proposed in [1], since each node has all the information needed. Likewise, we can also apply Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) as the planar topology in our new schemes. Finally, we design experiments to study both the properties of formatted scatternet (such as number

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Citation Context ...olved by separate Bluetooth protocol. One such protocol for discovering all one hop networks is described in [4], [5], while a protocol that provides two-hop information to every node is described in =-=[6]-=-. These protocols are applicable as the first phase of our scheme. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we give preliminaries needed to describe our new algorithms, and briefl... |

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Citation Context ...activity status (in addition to position exchange). Relative neighborhood graph was used in [17] to provide efficient localized broadcasting for oneto-one models of wireless communications. Li et al. =-=[18]-=- 4sproposed to use Gabriel graphs, RNGs, and Yao graphs to construct sparse power efficient networks. They also defined various graphs by combining the Gabriel graph structure and the Yao graph struct... |

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Citation Context ...ll wireless devices are in the radio vicinity of each other, e.g., electronic devices in a laboratory, or laptops in a conference room. Recent scatternet formation schemes by Li, Stojmenovic and Wang =-=[1]-=- are position based and were applied for multi-hop networks. These schemes are localized and can construct degree limited and connected piconets, without parking any node. They also limit to 7 the num... |

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Citation Context ...at forms the smallest clockwise and counter-clockwise angle respectively among all N1(u) with the segment ut. The packet is forwarded to the node of {v1, v2} with the minimum distance to t. See [33], =-=[36]-=-. The compass routing, random compass routing and the greedy routing guarantee to deliver the packets if DT is used as network topology [14], [35], [36]. TABLE IV THE DELIVERY RATE. sCG sMST sRNG sGG ... |

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Citation Context ...ows all the information, we can construct DT directly instead of LDT or PDT which are used in the multi-hop case. Other references, applying geometric structures in wireless networks, are surveyed in =-=[20]-=-. B. Literature Review on Bluetooth Scatternet Formation Although describing methods for device discovery and for the participation of a node to multiple piconets, the Bluetooth specification does not... |

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Citation Context ... to be master of s1, and then disconnects s2 from itself. Such branch reorganization is carried throughout the network. However, whether this approach will terminate is not proved in [21]. Tan et al. =-=[22]-=- proposed a similar method, but are restricted to single-hop scenarios. In the second protocol [21], several roots are initially selected. Each of them then creates its own scatternet as in the first ... |

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Citation Context ...ernet in singlehop networks. The final structure is a tree like scatternet, which limits efficiency and robustness. A singlehop Bluetooth scatternet formation scheme based on 1factors is described in =-=[24]-=-. However, piconets are not degree limited in that scheme. Salonidis et al. [4] proposed another topology con5sstruction algorithm recently. It first collects neighborhood information using an inquiry... |

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Citation Context ...e higher degree node on any remaining link is the master node), we intend to study alternative way of determining master-slave relations. This approach has been investigated for multi-hop networks in =-=[29]-=-. Some other interesting problems include: fast schemes for the neighbors discovery, more suitable routing algorithms for the proposed scatternets, scheduling of Bluetooth piconets, and capacity assig... |

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Citation Context ...lso assume up to 36 nodes in the network. Another centralized solution for single-hop networks, where the traffic between any pair of nodes is known a priori, is described in [25]. Sun, Chang and Lai =-=[26]-=- described a self-routing topology for single-hop Bluetooth networks. Nodes are organized and maintained in a search tree structure, with Bluetooth ID’s as keys (these keys are also used for routing).... |

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Citation Context ...roblem of discovering all neighbors within transmission radius of all neighbors is resolved by separate Bluetooth protocol. One such protocol for discovering all one hop networks is described in [4], =-=[5]-=-, while a protocol that provides two-hop information to every node is described in [6]. These protocols are applicable as the first phase of our scheme. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. ... |

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Citation Context ...ters, any two clusterheads at distance three identify a pair of neighboring nodes from each cluster that are connected. A construction of minimal number of such pairs of gateway nodes is described in =-=[11]-=-. An improved scheme is proposed in [12]. Sparse geometric structures that can be defined locally have been applied in wireless networks for localized routing and broadcasting algorithms. Gabriel grap... |

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Citation Context ...ity and easy creation as advantage, but it suffers large diameter (i.e., the maximum number of hops between any two devices) and large number of piconets. Barriere, Fraigniaud, Narajanan, and Opatrny =-=[28]-=- described a connected degree limited and distributed scatternet formation solution based on projective geometry for single-hop networks. They assume that only slave nodes can act as bridges. They des... |

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Citation Context ...scheme is proposed in [12]. Sparse geometric structures that can be defined locally have been applied in wireless networks for localized routing and broadcasting algorithms. Gabriel graph was used in =-=[13]-=-, [14] in order to define planar subgraph used for recovery routing to guarantee delivery, when simple heuristics fail. Gabriel graph was replaced in [16] by newly proposed restricted Delaunay graph, ... |

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Citation Context ...elaborated in [4]. They also assume up to 36 nodes in the network. Another centralized solution for single-hop networks, where the traffic between any pair of nodes is known a priori, is described in =-=[25]-=-. Sun, Chang and Lai [26] described a self-routing topology for single-hop Bluetooth networks. Nodes are organized and maintained in a search tree structure, with Bluetooth ID’s as keys (these keys ar... |

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Citation Context ...keys are also used for routing). It relies on a sophisticated scatternet merge procedure with significant communication overhead for creation and maintenance. Bluerings as scatternets are proposed in =-=[27]-=-. Ring structure for Bluetooth has simplicity and easy creation as advantage, but it suffers large diameter (i.e., the maximum number of hops between any two devices) and large number of piconets. Bar... |

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Citation Context ...s generated based on GG and DT are similar, due to the fact that DT has slightly more edges than GG. B. Routing in Scatternet Routing in Bluetooth received little attention so far. Bhagwat and Segall =-=[30]-=- proposed a routing method in Bluetooth based on a concept of route vector. They described protocols for route discovery and packet forwarding. Prabhu and Chockalingam [31] proposed battery power leve... |

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Citation Context ... so far. Bhagwat and Segall [30] proposed a routing method in Bluetooth based on a concept of route vector. They described protocols for route discovery and packet forwarding. Prabhu and Chockalingam =-=[31]-=- proposed battery power level based master-slave switch, distance based power control, and selecting route path with maximum cumulative battery power (after initial route discovery phase). Barriere et... |

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Citation Context ...s generated based on GG and DT are similar, due to the fact that DT has slightly more edges than GG. B. Routing in Scatternet Routing in Bluetooth received little attention so far. Bhagwat and Segall =-=[30]-=- proposed a routing method in Bluetooth based on a concept of route vector. They described protocols for route discovery and packet forwarding. Prabhu and Chockalingam [31] proposed battery power leve... |