## Formal verification of IA-64 division algorithms (2000)

Venue: | Proceedings, Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs), LNCS 1869 |

Citations: | 20 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Harrison00formalverification,

author = {John Harrison},

title = {Formal verification of IA-64 division algorithms},

booktitle = {Proceedings, Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs), LNCS 1869},

year = {2000},

pages = {234--251},

publisher = {Springer}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. The IA-64 architecture defers floating point and integer division to software. To ensure correctness and maximum efficiency, Intel provides a number of recommended algorithms which can be called as subroutines or inlined by compilers and assembly language programmers. All these algorithms have been subjected to formal verification using the HOL Light theorem prover. As well as improving our level of confidence in the algorithms, the formal verification process has led to a better understanding of the underlying theory, allowing some significant efficiency improvements. 1

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Citation Context ...llow reasonably fast software implementations. 1.3 Formal floating point theory The formal verifications are conducted using the freely available 2 HOL Light prover [7]. HOL Light is a version of HOL =-=[5]-=-, itself a descendent of Edinburgh LCF [6] which first defined the ‘LCF approach’ that these systems take to formal proof. LCF provers explicitly generate proofs in terms of extremely low-level primit... |

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Citation Context ... be partially automated. In general, however, the user must describe the proof at a moderate level of detail. The verifications described here draw extensively on a formalized theory of real analysis =-=[8]-=- and floating point arithmetic [9]. These sources should be consulted for more details, but we now summarize some of the main formal concepts used in the present paper. HOL notation is generally close... |

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Citation Context ...ons. 1.3 Formal floating point theory The formal verifications are conducted using the freely available 2 HOL Light prover [7]. HOL Light is a version of HOL [5], itself a descendent of Edinburgh LCF =-=[6]-=- which first defined the ‘LCF approach’ that these systems take to formal proof. LCF provers explicitly generate proofs in terms of extremely low-level primitive inferences, in order to provide a high... |

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Citation Context ...sually stored permanently, but the strict reduction to primitive inferences in maintained by the abstract type system of the interaction and implementation language, which for HOL Light is CAML Light =-=[16, 3]-=-. This language serves as a programming medium allowing higher-level derived rules (e.g. to automate linear arithmetic, first order logic or reasoning in other special domains) to be programmed as red... |

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Citation Context ...l, however, the user must describe the proof at a moderate level of detail. The verifications described here draw extensively on a formalized theory of real analysis [8] and floating point arithmetic =-=[9]-=-. These sources should be consulted for more details, but we now summarize some of the main formal concepts used in the present paper. HOL notation is generally close to traditional logical and mathem... |

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Citation Context ...plementation of division, square root and other mathematical functions are given in [12]. The closest related work to that described here is the formal verification of division algorithms reported in =-=[13]-=- and [15]. Although these are respectively for microcode and hardware RTL, and the present work is for software, this difference is not as significant as it may seem, since all these implementations s... |

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Citation Context ...ng is assured. One approach to proving this for a given algorithm is to ask: how close can a/b be to a floating point number or midpoint? A little work allows us to provide an answer to that question =-=[2]-=-, which we can formalize as the following HOL theorem: ⊢ a ∈ iformat(E,p,N) ∧ b ∈ iformat(E,p,N) ∧ c ∈ iformat(E,p+1,N+1) ∧ &2 pow (p - 1) / &2 pow N <= abs(a) ∧ ¬(b = &0) =⇒ (a / b = c) ∨ abs(a / b -... |

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Citation Context ...sually stored permanently, but the strict reduction to primitive inferences in maintained by the abstract type system of the interaction and implementation language, which for HOL Light is CAML Light =-=[16, 3]-=-. This language serves as a programming medium allowing higher-level derived rules (e.g. to automate linear arithmetic, first order logic or reasoning in other special domains) to be programmed as red... |

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Citation Context ...ion of division, square root and other mathematical functions are given in [12]. The closest related work to that described here is the formal verification of division algorithms reported in [13] and =-=[15]-=-. Although these are respectively for microcode and hardware RTL, and the present work is for software, this difference is not as significant as it may seem, since all these implementations seem to be... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...veral integer divide algorithms, which use a specialized floating-point division algorithm as a core. For an overview of the implementation of integer division on IA-64 and proofs of correctness, see =-=[1]-=-. Much more detail about the IA-64 implementation of division, square root and other mathematical functions are given in [12]. The closest related work to that described here is the formal verificatio... |