## A fast adaptive layout algorithm for undirected graphs (1995)

### Cached

### Download Links

- [www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de]
- [i44ftp.info.uni-karlsruhe.de]
- DBLP

### Other Repositories/Bibliography

Citations: | 101 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Frick95afast,

author = {Arne Frick and Andreas Ludwig and Heiko Mehldau},

title = {A fast adaptive layout algorithm for undirected graphs},

booktitle = {},

year = {1995},

pages = {388--403},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. We present a randomized adaptive layout algorithm for nicely drawing undirected graphs that is based on the spring-embedder paradigm and contains several new heuristics to improve the convergence, including local temperatures, gravitational forces and the detection of rotations and oscillations. The proposed algorithm achieves drawings of high quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before [9, 6, 3]. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1

### Citations

3519 | Optimization by simulated annealing
- Kirkpatrick, Gelatt, et al.
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd jEj. In optimization theory, researchers have introduced randomness to overcome the problem of ending up in local minima. They use a technique from statistical mechanics called simulated annealing =-=[13, 10] allowing -=-for changes into states with higher energy. An arbitrary state change is computed. Any downhill move is accepted, while "uphill moves" are accepted with a probability depending on a current ... |

2236 |
Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines
- Metropolis, Rosenbluth, et al.
- 1953
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd jEj. In optimization theory, researchers have introduced randomness to overcome the problem of ending up in local minima. They use a technique from statistical mechanics called simulated annealing =-=[13, 10] allowing -=-for changes into states with higher energy. An arbitrary state change is computed. Any downhill move is accepted, while "uphill moves" are accepted with a probability depending on a current ... |

514 | A heuristic for graph drawing
- Eades
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...straight-line drawing of an undirected graph can be classified into three groups according to the computational model employed. The spring embedder model for drawing undirected graphs is due to Eades =-=[4]-=-. It generalizes previously known algorithms for the layout of PCB's [5, 8]. Using an analogy to physics, vertices are treated as mutually repulsive charges and edges as springs connecting and attract... |

456 | An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs
- Kawai
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before =-=[9, 6, 3]-=-. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1 Introduction The problem of obtainin... |

427 | Graph drawing by force-directed placement
- Fruchterman, Reingold
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before =-=[9, 6, 3]-=-. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1 Introduction The problem of obtainin... |

232 |
Algorithms for drawing graphs: an annotated bibliography
- EADES, TAMASSIA
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1 Introduction The problem of obtainingan aesthetically pleasing drawing of a given graph G = (V; E) is receiving increasing attention in the literature =-=[2, 1]-=-. One way of dealing with this problem is the construction of straight-line drawings, in which each edge is mapped into a straight-line segment in the plane. The problem then reduces to the problem of... |

174 | HAREL D.: Drawing graphs nicely using simulated annealing
- DAVIDSON
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h quality on a wide range of graphs with standard settings. Moreover, the algorithm is fast, being thus applicable on general undirected graphs of substantially larger size and complexity than before =-=[9, 6, 3]-=-. Aesthetically pleasing solutions are found in most cases. We give empirical data for the running time of the algorithm and the quality of the computed layouts. 1 Introduction The problem of obtainin... |

50 |
A force directed component placement procedure for printed circuit boards
- Quinn, Breur
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e groups according to the computational model employed. The spring embedder model for drawing undirected graphs is due to Eades [4]. It generalizes previously known algorithms for the layout of PCB's =-=[5, 8]-=-. Using an analogy to physics, vertices are treated as mutually repulsive charges and edges as springs connecting and attracting the charges. Starting with an arbitrary initial placement of vertices, ... |

25 | GraphEd: a graphical platform for the implementation of graph algorithms
- Himsolt
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts In this section, we compare the runtimes of the GEM algorithm with those of publicly available implementations of the Kamada/Kawai and Fruchterman/Reingold algorithms contained in the GraphEd tool =-=[7]-=- subsequently called KK and FR, respectively. Our test suite consists of 30 graphs of different types, sizes and densities. All measurements have been conducted on a SparcStation 10 using the GraphEd ... |

23 |
Geometry symmetry in graphs
- Manning
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in the plane. The problem then reduces to the problem of positioning the vertices v 2 V by determining a mapping OE : V ! IR 2 . There are many criteria for judging the aesthetics of a graph drawing =-=[12]-=-. Among the most influential are the display of symmetries existing in the graph and the minimization of edge crossings. Furthermore, edges should have as few bends as possible, and the deviation on t... |

10 |
Accel: Automated circuit card etching layout
- Fisk, Caskey, et al.
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e groups according to the computational model employed. The spring embedder model for drawing undirected graphs is due to Eades [4]. It generalizes previously known algorithms for the layout of PCB's =-=[5, 8]-=-. Using an analogy to physics, vertices are treated as mutually repulsive charges and edges as springs connecting and attracting the charges. Starting with an arbitrary initial placement of vertices, ... |

8 |
A layout algorithm for undirected graphs
- Tunkelang
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... The distance a vertex can travel at a given time is limited depending on the current temperature. The third group of heuristics is based on preprocessing of the graph to get a good initial placement =-=[15, 14]-=-. The full paper contains reviews of these. 4 The GEM algorithm The algorithm proposed in this paper is called GEM (short for graph embedder). It contains several novel algorithmic ideas. These includ... |

7 |
Heuristic graph displayer for G-BASE
- Watanabe
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... The distance a vertex can travel at a given time is limited depending on the current temperature. The third group of heuristics is based on preprocessing of the graph to get a good initial placement =-=[15, 14]-=-. The full paper contains reviews of these. 4 The GEM algorithm The algorithm proposed in this paper is called GEM (short for graph embedder). It contains several novel algorithmic ideas. These includ... |

1 |
SeminumericalAlgorithms,volume 2. Addison-Wesley,2nd edition
- Knuth
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... according to which the vertices are chosen. The complexity of choosing a permutation can be amortized to O(1) per iteration as there is an O(n) algorithm to compute a random permutation on n elements=-=[11]-=-. 4.3 Impulse Computation GEM memorizes the last movement for each vertex. In analogy to physics, we refer to this informationas the impulse of the vertex. The computation of the impulse is governed b... |