## Joint design and separation principle for opportunistic spectrum access (2006)

Venue: | IEEE Transactions on Information Theory |

Citations: | 76 - 35 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Chen06jointdesign,

author = {Yunxia Chen and Qing Zhao},

title = {Joint design and separation principle for opportunistic spectrum access},

booktitle = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory},

year = {2006}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract — This paper develops optimal strategy for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) by integrating the design of spectrum sensor at the physical layer with that of spectrum sensing and access policies at the medium access control (MAC) layer. The design objective is to maximize the throughput of secondary users while limiting their probability of colliding with primary users. By exploiting the rich structures of the problem, we establish a separation principle: the design of spectrum sensor and access policy can be decoupled from that of sensing policy without losing optimality. This separation principle enables us to obtain closedform optimal sensor operating characteristic and access policy, leading to significant complexity reduction. It also allows us to study the inherent interaction between spectrum sensor and access policy and the tradeoff between false alarm and miss detection in opportunity identification. I.

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Citation Context ... the value function of an unconstrained POMDP with finite action space is piece-wise linear and can be solved via linear programming. We can thus use the existing computationally efficient algorithms =-=[6]-=-–[8] to solve (9) for the optimal sensing policy. Although myopic sensor operating and access policies are shown to be optimal for the joint design of OSA (see the separation principle), myopic sensin... |

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Citation Context ... of the sensing strategy is reduced to an unconstrained POMDP, which admits deterministic optimal policies. Unconstrained POMDPs have been well studied, and existing algorithms can be readily applied =-=[5]-=-–[8]. We also provide simulation examples to study design tradeoffs. We will see that miss detections are more harmful to the throughput of the secondary user than false alarms. The tradeoff study bet... |

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Citation Context ...the separation principle developed in this paper reveals that the heuristic approach proposed in [20] is optimal. For an overview on challenges and recent developments in OSA, readers are referred to =-=[21]-=-. Fig. 2. The slot structure. D. Organization and Notation This paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the network model and the basic operations performed by a secondary user to exploit ... |

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Citation Context ... the existing work often assumes perfect knowledge of spectrum opportunities in the whole spectrum at any location. Research efforts have also been made to exploit temporal spectrum opportunities [7]–=-=[9]-=- under perfect spectrum sensing. However, in the presence of noise and fading, sensing errors will occur. Hence, the design of sensing and access policies should take into account the operating charac... |

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Citation Context ...nitoring test-beds demonstrate the Makovian transition between busy and idle channel states in wireless LAN. Although the issue of spectrum sensing errors has been investigated at the PHY layer [17]– =-=[21]-=-, cognitive MAC design in the presence of sensing errors has received little attention. To the best of our knowledge, [22] is the first work that integrates the operating characteristic of the spectru... |

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Citation Context ... the physical limit on usable radio frequencies have motivated the development of dynamic spectrum sharing and allocation technologies. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), first envisioned by Mitola =-=[1]-=- and then investigated by the DARPA XG program [2], has received great attention [3] due to its potential in improving spectrum efficiency. The idea of OSA is to allow secondary users to identify, sea... |

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Citation Context ...rum monitoring test-beds demonstrate the Makovian transition between busy and idle channel states in wireless LAN. Although the issue of spectrum sensing errors has been investigated at the PHY layer =-=[17]-=-– [21], cognitive MAC design in the presence of sensing errors has received little attention. To the best of our knowledge, [22] is the first work that integrates the operating characteristic of the s... |

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Citation Context ...the sensing strategy is reduced to an unconstrained POMDP, which admits deterministic optimal policies. Unconstrained POMDPs have been well studied, and existing algorithms can be readily applied [5]–=-=[8]-=-. We also provide simulation examples to study design tradeoffs. We will see that miss detections are more harmful to the throughput of the secondary user than false alarms. The tradeoff study between... |

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Citation Context ... and the existing work often assumes perfect knowledge of spectrum opportunities in the whole spectrum at any location. Research efforts have also been made to exploit temporal spectrum opportunities =-=[7]-=-–[9] under perfect spectrum sensing. However, in the presence of noise and fading, sensing errors will occur. Hence, the design of sensing and access policies should take into account the operating ch... |

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Citation Context .... Related Work Differing from this paper that mainly addresses the exploitation of temporal spectrum opportunities resulting from the bursty traffic of primary users, a majority of existing work (see =-=[4]-=-–[6] and references therein) focus on geographic spectrum opportunities that are static or slowly varying in time. The application being considered is a network of geographically distributed secondary... |

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Citation Context ...y the spectrum sensor, i.e., and . Proof: The proof of Theorem 2 exploits the convexity of the set of feasible sensor operating points, which follows directly from the concavity of the best ROC curve =-=[23]-=-. See Appendix D for details. We find that the optimal sensor operating point coincides with the splitting point of the “conservative” region and the “aggressive” region on the best ROC curve (see Fig... |

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Citation Context ...rfect knowledge of spectrum opportunities in the whole spectrum at any location. The exploitation of temporal spectrum opportunities resulting from the bursty traffic of primary users is addressed in =-=[12]-=-–[15] under the assumption of perfect sensing. In [12], MAC protocols are proposed for an ad hoc secondary network overlaying a GSM cellular network. It is assumed that the secondary transmitter and r... |

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Citation Context ...ition probabilities {Ps,s ′} of the underlying Markov model are known. If the transition probabilities are unknown, formulations and algorithms for POMDP with an unknown model exist in the literature =-=[12]-=- and can be applied to our problem. In Section V, we study the impact of mismatched Markov model on the OSA performance. C. Design Objective We aim to determine the optimal sensor operating point δ an... |

41 | A survey of dynamic spectrum access: Signal processing and networking perspectives
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Citation Context ...the separation principle developed in this paper reveals that the heuristic approach proposed in [22] is optimal. For an overview on challenges and recent developments in OSA, readers are referred to =-=[23]-=-. D. Organization This paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the network model and the basic operations performed by a secondary user to exploit spectrum opportunities. In Section III, w... |

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27 | Optimal dynamic spectrum access via periodic channel sensing
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Citation Context ... knowledge of spectrum opportunities in the whole spectrum at any location. The exploitation of temporal spectrum opportunities resulting from the bursty traffic of primary users is addressed in [12]–=-=[15]-=- under the assumption of perfect sensing. In [12], MAC protocols are proposed for an ad hoc secondary network overlaying a GSM cellular network. It is assumed that the secondary transmitter and receiv... |

25 |
The optimal control of partially ovservable Markov processes over a finite horizon
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to partial spectrum monitoring and sensing errors, the secondary user and the receiver cannot directly observe the current state of the spectrum occupancy. We thus have a POMDP. It has been shown in =-=[11]-=- that the knowledge of the current spectrum occupancy state based on all past decisions (i.e., sensing and access actions) and observations (i.e., acknowledgements) can be summarized by a belief state... |

21 |
Dynamic spectrum access in WLAN channels: Empirical model and its stochastic analysis
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Citation Context ...ondary user searching for opportunities in an un-slotted primary network is considered, where a round-robin single-channel sensing scheme is used. Modeling of spectrum occupancy has been addressed in =-=[16]-=-. Measurements obtained from spectrum monitoring test-beds demonstrate the Makovian transition between busy and idle channel states in wireless LAN. Although the issue of spectrum sensing errors has b... |

15 | Structure and Optimality of Myopic Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum
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Citation Context ...r operating and access policies are shown to be optimal for the joint design of OSA (see the separation principle), myopic sensing policy is suboptimal in general. Interestingly, it has been shown in =-=[26]-=- that the myopic sensing policy is optimal when the SOS evolves independently and identically across channels. When the channel occupancy states are correlated, the myopic approach can serve as a subo... |

13 |
The Optimal Control of Partially Observable
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Citation Context ... the value function of an unconstrained POMDP with finite action space is piece-wise linear and can be solved via linear programming. We can thus use the existing computationally efficient algorithms =-=[4]-=-–[6] to solve (8) for the optimal sensing policy. Although myopic sensor operating and access policies are shown to be optimal for the joint design of OSA (see the separation principle), myopic sensin... |

11 |
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Citation Context ...lated Work Differing from this paper that mainly addresses the exploitation of temporal spectrum opportunities resulting from the bursty traffic of primary users, a majority of existing work (see [4]–=-=[6]-=- and references therein) focus on geographic spectrum opportunities that are static or slowly varying in time. The application being considered is a network of geographically distributed secondary use... |

9 | Distributed cognitive MAC for Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access
- Chen, Zhao, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...receiver without the aid of additional control channels. More recently, the design of optimal spectrum sensing and access strategies in a fading environment is addressed under an energy constraint in =-=[14]-=-. In [15], access strategies for a slotted secondary user searching for opportunities in an un-slotted primary network is considered, where a round-robin single-channel sensing scheme is used. Modelin... |

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Citation Context ...rmance improves over time by learning from accumulating observations. We have not taken into account the interactions among secondary users. The design of multiuser sensing strategies is addressed in =-=[26]-=-, where perfect sensing is assumed. The POMDP framework has also been extended in [27] to address the joint design of OSA in unslotted primary networks. APPENDIX A PROOF OF PROPOSITION 1 We first prov... |

6 |
Separation Principle for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Unslotted Primary Systems
- Tehrani, Zhao
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...we consider the non-trivial case where Pr{Sa(t) =0| Λ(t)} > 0 in any channel a and slot t. 1 a(Λ(t),t),f 0 ⎧ ⎪⎨ (1, a (Λ(t),t)) = ⎪⎩ ζ−δ 1−δ ), δ < ζ, (1, 0), δ = ζ, ( ζ (3) δ , 0), δ > ζ. Proof: See =-=[10]-=- for details. Theorem 1 enables us to study the impact of sensor operating characteristics on the optimal access policy. As illustrated in Fig. 2, the ROC curve can be partitioned into two regions: th... |

6 | Detecting, tracking, and exploiting spectrum opportunities in unslotted primary systems
- Zhao, Liu
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n into account the interactions among secondary users. The design of multiuser sensing strategies is addressed in [26], where perfect sensing is assumed. The POMDP framework has also been extended in =-=[27]-=- to address the joint design of OSA in unslotted primary networks. APPENDIX A PROOF OF PROPOSITION 1 We first prove the existence of a deterministic optimal sensor operating policy. Suppose that chann... |

2 |
Joint PHY-MAC layer design for opportunistic spectrum access in the presence of sensing errors
- Chen, Zhao, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...um sensor design by solving (13) for the optimal sensor operating points when the transmission probabilities are given. This result is omitted to avoid unnecessary repetition. Details can be found in =-=[27]-=-. D. Optimal Joint Design of Spectrum Sensor and Access Policy Optimizing (15) over all feasible sensor operating points, we obtain an explicit optimal design for the spectrum sensor and a closed-form... |