## A Proportional Share Resource Allocation Algorithm For Real-Time, Time-Shared Systems (1996)

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Citations: | 204 - 18 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Stoica96aproportional,

author = {Ion Stoica and Hussein Abdel-wahab and Kevin Jeffay and Sanjoy K. Baruah and Johannes E. Gehrke and C. Greg Plaxton},

title = {A Proportional Share Resource Allocation Algorithm For Real-Time, Time-Shared Systems},

year = {1996}

}

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### Abstract

We propose and analyze a proportional share resource allocation algorithm for realizing real-time performance in time-shared operating systems. In a proportional share system, processes are assigned a weight which determines a share (percentage) of the resource they are to receive. The resource is then allocated in discrete-sized time quanta in such a manner that each process makes progress at a precise, uniform rate. Proportional share allocation algorithms are of interest because (1) they provide a natural means of seamlessly integrating real- and non-real-time processing requirements in a general purpose operating system, (2) they are easy to implement (and in particular, easier than more traditional forms of real-time support such as periodic tasks), (3) they provide a simple and effective means of precisely controlling the real-time performance of a process including uniform, predictable degradation in times of system overload, and (4) they provide a natural mean of policing proce...

### Citations

3236 | Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment - Liu, Layland - 1973 |

1807 | Generalized Processor Sharing Approach to Flow Control in Integrated Services Networks: the Multiple Node Case
- Parekh, Gallager
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... context of operating systems and communication networks. Our algorithm is closely related to weighted fair queueing algorithms previously developed for bandwidth allocation in communication networks =-=[4, 5, 10]-=-, and general purpose proportional share algorithms, such as stride scheduling [17, 18]. Demers, Keshav, and Shenker were the rst to apply the notion of fairness to a uid- ow system that models an ide... |

1149 | Analysis and simulation of a fair queueing algorithm
- Demers, Keshav, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of magnitude as these overheads could drastically reduce the resource utilization. Another reason is that some operations cannot be interrupted, i.e., once 1 A similar model was used by Demers et al =-=[4]-=- in studying fair-queuing algorithms in communication networks. started they must complete in the same time quantum. For example, once a communication switch begins to send a packet of one session, it... |

583 | VirtualClock: A new traffic control algorithm for packet-switched networks - Zhang |

442 | Lottery Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management
- Waldspurger, Weihl
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... previous approximations [5], ours guarantees optimal lag bounds. Besides the class of fair queuing algorithms, a signi cant number of other proportional share algorithms have recently been developed =-=[1, 9,12, 16]-=-. Although none of them guarantees constant lag bounds in a dynamic system, we note that the PD algorithm of Baruah, Gehrke, and Plaxton [1] achieves constant lag bounds in a static system. The idea o... |

393 | A self-clocked fair queueing scheme for broadband applications
- Golestani
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... context of operating systems and communication networks. Our algorithm is closely related to weighted fair queueing algorithms previously developed for bandwidth allocation in communication networks =-=[4, 5, 10]-=-, and general purpose proportional share algorithms, such as stride scheduling [17, 18]. Demers, Keshav, and Shenker were the rst to apply the notion of fairness to a uid- ow system that models an ide... |

304 | A hierarchical CPU scheduler for multimedia operating system
- Goyal, Guo, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oth uniform and non-uniform quanta. Goyal, Guo and Vin have proposed a new algorithm, called Start-time Fair Queueing (SFQ), for hierarchically partitioning of a CPU among various application classes =-=[6]-=-. While this algorithm supports both uniform and non-uniform quanta, the delay bound (and implicitly the lag) increases linearly with the number of clients. However, we note that when the number of cl... |

181 | LM+89] “The Design and Implementation of the 4.3BSD UNIX Operating System - Leffler, McKusick, et al. - 1989 |

159 | Stride Scheduling Deterministic Proportional Share Resource Management
- Waldspurger, Weihl
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to weighted fair queueing algorithms previously developed for bandwidth allocation in communication networks [4, 5, 10], and general purpose proportional share algorithms, such as stride scheduling =-=[17, 18]-=-. Demers, Keshav, and Shenker were the rst to apply the notion of fairness to a uid- ow system that models an idealized communication switch in which sessions are serviced in arbitrarily small increme... |

144 | Lottery and Stride Scheduling: Flexible Proportional-Share Resource Management
- Waldspurger
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to weighted fair queueing algorithms previously developed for bandwidth allocation in communication networks [4, 5, 10], and general purpose proportional share algorithms, such as stride scheduling =-=[17, 18]-=-. Demers, Keshav, and Shenker were the rst to apply the notion of fairness to a uid- ow system that models an idealized communication switch in which sessions are serviced in arbitrarily small increme... |

110 | Fast scheduling of periodic tasks on multiple resources
- Baruah, Gehrke, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... previous approximations [5], ours guarantees optimal lag bounds. Besides the class of fair queuing algorithms, a signi cant number of other proportional share algorithms have recently been developed =-=[1, 9,12, 16]-=-. Although none of them guarantees constant lag bounds in a dynamic system, we note that the PD algorithm of Baruah, Gehrke, and Plaxton [1] achieves constant lag bounds in a static system. The idea o... |

58 | On the duality between resource reservation and proportional-share resource allocation. SPIE - Stoica, Abdel-Wahab, et al. - 1997 |

38 |
The Chairman Assignment Problem
- Tijdeman
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct to the class of proportional share algorithms, these guarantees are the best possible. 3 Related Work Tijdeman was one of the rst to formulate and analyze the proportional share allocation problem =-=[15]-=-. The original problem, an abstraction of diplomatic protocols, was stated in terms of selecting a union chairman every year, such that the accumulated number of chairmen from each state (of the union... |

35 |
Virtual Clock: A New Tra c Control Algorithm for Packet-Switched Networks
- Zhang
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing between allocation accuracy and scheduling overhead. We formulate our scheduling algorithm in terms of the behavior of an ideal, uid- ow system that executes clients in a virtual-time time domain =-=[19, 10]-=-. Abstractly, the virtual uid- ow system executes each client for wi real-time time units during each virtualtime time unit. More concretely, virtual-time is de ned to be the following function of rea... |

23 | Fair on-line scheduling of a dynamic set of tasks on a single resource
- Baruah, Gehrke, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...atic protocols, was stated in terms of selecting a union chairman every year, such that the accumulated number of chairmen from each state (of the union) to be proportional to its weight. As shown in =-=[2]-=-, Tijdeman's results can be easily applied to solve the proportional share allocation problem. In the general setting, the resource is allocated in xed time quanta, while the clients' shares may chang... |

19 | Charge-based proportional scheduling
- Maheshwari
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... previous approximations [5], ours guarantees optimal lag bounds. Besides the class of fair queuing algorithms, a signi cant number of other proportional share algorithms have recently been developed =-=[1, 9,12, 16]-=-. Although none of them guarantees constant lag bounds in a dynamic system, we note that the PD algorithm of Baruah, Gehrke, and Plaxton [1] achieves constant lag bounds in a static system. The idea o... |

14 | Earliest Eligible Virtual Deadline First: A Flexible and Accurate Mechanism for Proportional Share Resource Allocation
- Stoica, Abdel-Wahab
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hey have shown that no packet is serviced Tmax latter than it would have been serviced in the uid- ow system, where Tmax represents the time to transmit a packet of maximum size. However, as shown in =-=[3,13, 18]-=-, the lag bound can be as large as O(n), where n represents the number of active sessions (clients) in the system. Moreover, in PFQ the virtual time is updated when a client joins or leaves the compet... |

10 | WF Q : Worst-case Fair Queueing - Bennett, Zhang - 1996 |

10 | A New Approach to Implement Proportional Share Resource Allocation
- Stoica, Abdel-Wahab
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

7 |
WF 2 Q:Worst-case Fair Queueing
- Bennett, Zhang
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hey have shown that no packet is serviced Tmax latter than it would have been serviced in the uid- ow system, where Tmax represents the time to transmit a packet of maximum size. However, as shown in =-=[3,13, 18]-=-, the lag bound can be as large as O(n), where n represents the number of active sessions (clients) in the system. Moreover, in PFQ the virtual time is updated when a client joins or leaves the compet... |

6 | Plaxton, "Fast Scheduling of Periodic Tasks on Multiple Resources - Baruah, Gehrke, et al. - 1995 |