## CHARGE-DOMAIN SAMPLING OF HIGH-FREQUENCY SIGNALS WITH EMBEDDED FILTERING

Citations: | 1 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Karvonen_charge-domainsampling,

author = {Sami Karvonen},

title = {CHARGE-DOMAIN SAMPLING OF HIGH-FREQUENCY SIGNALS WITH EMBEDDED FILTERING},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of

### Citations

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Citation Context ...asing switching speeds of MOS transistors allow dense integration of large amounts of high-speed digital logic on the same chip with the receiver front-end [5],[6],[7]. A fully software-defined radio =-=[8]-=-, and even a partially programmable radio supporting multiple wireless standards would directly benefit from radios14 architectures based mostly on digital signal processing and digital controllabilit... |

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RF Microelectronics
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Citation Context ...he sampling clock signal results in a time-varying Ron , which can significantly limit the bandwidth of a track1) In some texts the noise figure on a linear scale is referred to as the noise factor F =-=[21]-=-. The notation NF is used throughout this thesis rather than F. (5) (6) (7)sNoise figure [dB] 55 50 45 40 35 30 22 f s =10 MHz f s =100 MHz 25 10f 100f 1p 10p Sampling capacitance [F] Fig. 5. Noise fi... |

86 |
Design considerations for direct conversion receivers
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Citation Context ...anches of the CMU. The dc bias current seen at the output of the CMU is integrated into a dc offset signal at the output of the sampler, which, as with direct conversion receivers employing CT mixers =-=[46]-=-, can be especially harmful if the sampler is used for direct downconversion to baseband by subsampling. To illustrate the effects of tap coefficient mismatches on the amplitude response of a charge-d... |

44 | A 1.9-GHz wide-band IF double conversion CMOS receiver for cordless telephone applications
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Citation Context ...external discrete components, usually also leading to decreased overall power consumption, which is especially important for hand-held devices. Several new architectural solutions have been presented =-=[1]-=-, [2], and already mature topologies, such as the direct conversion receiver, have been re-used along with sensible circuit-level solutions [3] to overcome the problems associated with the low integra... |

32 |
Decimation for Sigma Delta Modulation
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Citation Context ...anti-aliasing filtering capability, FIR filters with DT sinc-type frequency responses are commonly used for anti-aliasing filtering in sampling rate reduction by decimation, e.g. in ΔΣ A/D conversion =-=[39]-=-. A DT N-tap lowpass 1 st -order sinc-type FIR filtering function, also known as the time-domain moving average filtering operation, can be implemented with the charge-domain sampling technique simply... |

23 |
CMOS Wireless Transceiver Design
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Citation Context ...d from (18) that for a signal bandwidth of 2.54 % of f c , the ideally achievable IMR is more than 40 dB, which is adequate for most wireless applications when direct downconversion to dc is employed =-=[41]-=-. It is worth noting that the obtainable IMR of the sinc-type complex sampler is ideally independent of the FIR tap count N. An output read-out rate f s =f s,FIR /N results in an optimal embedded anti... |

21 |
Measurement and Analysis of Charge Injection in MOS Analog Switches
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Citation Context ...t may have limited capability when operating at high frequencies [30]. The output of elementary voltage-domain sampling circuits is also corrupted by non-linearities caused by charge injection errors =-=[31]-=- and clock-feedthrough effects [32]. As a result of the deficiencies in elementary voltage-domain subsampling downconverters, measured noise figures as high as 39 dB [10] have been reported, which has... |

20 |
Low-distortion switched-capacitor filter design technique
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Citation Context ...etermined only by the accuracy of the final opamp settling if the charge loss due to the finite τ of the integrator can be considered to be negligibly small. Thus, as in the case of DT SC integrators =-=[44]-=-, if the settling period is designed to be adequately long, increasing A 0 should directly improve the linearity of the charge-domain sampler’s active integrator stage. Practical transistor-level simu... |

14 |
An 81MHz if receiver in CMOS
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Citation Context ... digital form, a subsampling front-end can be used to simultaneously perform the tasks of frequency downconversion and sample-and-hold operation prior to A/D conversion at the downconverted frequency =-=[9]-=-. Since the operation frequency of discrete-time (DT) signal processing blocks following the front-end sampler is decreased and their bandwidth constraints are relieved, the use of a subsampling downc... |

6 | Distortion Analysis of MOS Track-and-Hold Sampihg Mixers Using Tirne-Varying Volterra Series
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he bandwidth limitation of a practical sampler due to the finite switch state transition time can result in further degradation of its noise figure, and may also lead to increased harmonic distortion =-=[23]-=-. It is worth noting that operation at relatively low frequencies inherently allows the problem of trade-off between the size of C s and the achievable sampling bandwidth to be avoided in baseband sig... |

5 |
Performance analysis of general charge sampling
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Citation Context ...ange at 250 MHz was demonstrated by G. Xu and J. Yuan in [52]. It is worth noting that G. Xu and J. Yuan have also presented theoretical analysis of the performance of the charge-sampling method [20],=-=[53]-=-, which partially overlaps with some of the theoretical analysis presented in this thesis and was published while the present work was in progress. The aim here has been to address the use of the char... |

4 |
High-speed low-power integrating CMOS sample-and-hold amplifier architecture
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Citation Context ...lters when used for subsampling downconversion of high-frequency signals. Recently, circuits based on the integrative sampling of current signals, often referred to as charge-domain sampling circuits =-=[33]-=-,[34],[35], have gained interest for use as high-frequency front-ends of DT signal processing blocks, due to their inherent simplicity of combining both continuous and discrete-time filtering function... |

4 |
A Charge Sampling Mixer with Embedded Filter Function for Wireless Applications
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- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... when used for subsampling downconversion of high-frequency signals. Recently, circuits based on the integrative sampling of current signals, often referred to as charge-domain sampling circuits [33],=-=[34]-=-,[35], have gained interest for use as high-frequency front-ends of DT signal processing blocks, due to their inherent simplicity of combining both continuous and discrete-time filtering functions int... |

4 |
A Multiple Sampling, Single A/D Conversion Technique for I/Q Demodulation in CMOS
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Citation Context ... sampling e.g. in [55] and [56], for example, and for decimating downconversion in IF sampling in [57]. Voltage-domain sampling has also been used for complex-valued FIR and image rejection filtering =-=[58]-=-,[59], and more recently for direct RF sampling with combined decimation FIR filtering at IF [60]. A programmable FIR filter based on current signal sampling was presented in [61]. Although all the ab... |

2 |
Steyaert MSJ
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Citation Context ...: 145-148. V Karvonen S, Riley T & Kostamovaara J (2005) A CMOS quadrature charge-domain sampling circuit with 66-dB SFDR up to 100 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 52=-=(2)-=-: 292-303. VI Karvonen S, Riley T, Kurtti S & Kostamovaara J (2005) A quadrature charge-domain sampler with embedded FIR and IIR filtering functions. Accepted for publication to IEEE Journal of Solid-... |

2 |
Phase-Error-Free Quadrature Sampling Technique in the Ultrasonic B-Scan Imaging System and Its Application to the Synthetic Focusing System
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- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e frequency content of the real-valued bandpass signal can also be rejected within the subsampling operation itself. In quadrature generation methods based on the second-order sampling principle [16],=-=[17]-=-,[18], the I channel samples are taken at time instants nT s at a sampling rate f s =1/Τ s . As in the subsampling of a complex bandpass signal, shown in Fig. 2, f s determines the spectral location o... |

2 |
Phase noise in sampling and its importance to wideband multicarrier base station receivers
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- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he power of the sampling error to the power of the clock jitter is (f in /f s ) 2 , and hence the phase noise of the sampling clock is effectively multiplied by (f in /f s ) 2 in the sampling process =-=[27]-=-. Multiplication of the phase noise is therefore especially problematic in subsampling, since in principle a large subsampling ratio f in /f s is desired. As with CT downconversion mixers, the spectra... |

2 |
2-μm, 1.6-mW gated-g m sampler with 72-dB SFDR for f s=160 Ms/s and f in =320.25 MHz
- SC, AK
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ple-and-hold operation was presented in 1995 by Carley et al. [33]. The circuit achieved a 100-MS/s sampling rate with a total harmonic distortion (THD) of -48 dB (0.4-%) for a 0.8-V input signal. In =-=[51]-=-, a 160 MS/s charge-domain gated-g m sampler core based on a special CCD technology with a high SFDR of 72 dB for a 320.25-MHz input signal was introduced. A 500 MS/s integrating charge-sampling circu... |

1 |
2000).“Toward Biomorphic Control using Custom aVLSI
- unknown authors
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iques, such as multiplying mixers, variable gain amplifiers and CT baseband filters, has resulted in highly-integrated receiver chip implementations for widely used mobile phone standards such as GSM =-=[4]-=-. Receiver topologies based fundamentally on analogue signal processing nevertheless often require advanced technologies such as BiCMOS/SiGe BiCMOS for successful implementation, and may possess poor ... |

1 |
All-digital TX frequency synthesizer and discrete-time receiver for Bluetooth radio in 130-nm CMOS
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- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ossess poor scalability for integration in the most modern sub-micrometer CMOS processes, which are required for cost-efficient realization of the baseband signal processing functions in the receiver =-=[5]-=-. A different, very straightforward solution for increasing the receiver integration level is to transfer the signal sampling and analogue-to-digital (A/D) interface from the baseband to higher freque... |

1 |
A fully-integrated single-chip SOC for Bluetooth
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Citation Context ...receiver implementation, since increasing switching speeds of MOS transistors allow dense integration of large amounts of high-speed digital logic on the same chip with the receiver front-end [5],[6],=-=[7]-=-. A fully software-defined radio [8], and even a partially programmable radio supporting multiple wireless standards would directly benefit from radios14 architectures based mostly on digital signal p... |

1 |
The noise figure of a sampling mixer: theory and measurement
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e the required appropriate bandpass anti-aliasing filtering and obtain adequate noise performance in high-frequency operation with conventional straightforward implementations of subsampling circuits =-=[10]-=-, which has prevented their use in demanding wireless applications. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and implement methods for integrating filtering into high-frequency signal sampling and sub... |

1 |
NL & White DR
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Citation Context ... /2 and higher f H =f c +f B /2 band edges reside in between two adjacent multiples of half of the sampling frequency f s /2. The condition for the appropriate f s can be formulated mathematically as =-=[11]-=- 2fH ------- f k s (a) (b) (c) ≤ ≤ |X(f)| 2f L ---------- , k – 1 f 0 f B f f (1)s17 where k= 1, ..., fH ⁄ fB . The notation x denotes the largest integer ≤x. It should be emphasized that without the ... |

1 |
Complex analogue Bandpass Filters Designed by Linearly Shifting Real Low-Pass Prototypes
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Citation Context ...owever, and therefore not physically realizable with practical circuits. In practice, the negative frequencies can be suppressed by some form of complex filtering, such as CT complex bandpass filters =-=[13]-=-. Since integrated complex bandpass filters passing only the positive portion of the desired signal are difficult to implement at the high input frequencies involved in subsampling, complex bandstop f... |

1 |
The Numerical Algorithms Group
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- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l are difficult to implement at the high input frequencies involved in subsampling, complex bandstop filters that merely reject the image band frequencies realized with a simple passive RC-CR network =-=[14]-=-, or with asymmetric polyphase networks [15], are usually preferred. After image rejection, the complex bandpass signal can be directly quadrature downconverted to dc by selecting the k th multiple of... |

1 |
Ragaie HF, Tawfik MS (2000) RC Sequence Asymmetric Polyphase Networks for RF Integrated Transceivers
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ut frequencies involved in subsampling, complex bandstop filters that merely reject the image band frequencies realized with a simple passive RC-CR network [14], or with asymmetric polyphase networks =-=[15]-=-, are usually preferred. After image rejection, the complex bandpass signal can be directly quadrature downconverted to dc by selecting the k th multiple of the subsampling frequency be equal to the c... |

1 |
On Quadrature Sampling of Bandpass Signals
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Citation Context ...gative frequency content of the real-valued bandpass signal can also be rejected within the subsampling operation itself. In quadrature generation methods based on the second-order sampling principle =-=[16]-=-,[17],[18], the I channel samples are taken at time instants nT s at a sampling rate f s =1/Τ s . As in the subsampling of a complex bandpass signal, shown in Fig. 2, f s determines the spectral locat... |

1 |
Frequency-Shifting Using Bandpass Sampling
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...quency content of the real-valued bandpass signal can also be rejected within the subsampling operation itself. In quadrature generation methods based on the second-order sampling principle [16],[17],=-=[18]-=-, the I channel samples are taken at time instants nT s at a sampling rate f s =1/Τ s . As in the subsampling of a complex bandpass signal, shown in Fig. 2, f s determines the spectral location of the... |

1 |
Shaowei Y & Guirong G
- Feixue
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... from the constant ΔT between the quadrature channel samples is known in advance, it is also possible to perform compensating phase-shifting filtering ins19 the digital domain to minimize its effects =-=[19]-=-. However, due to timing mismatches in analogue sampler implementations, ΔT can be different from the desired value, hence resulting in an unknown phase error and degradation of IMR. It should be note... |

1 |
Accurate sample-and-hold circuit model
- Xu, Yuan
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...anti-aliasing filter is small compared with the on-resistance R on of the sampling switch, and the on-time of the sampling switch is long compared with the time constant R on C s of the sampling loop =-=[20]-=-, the rms noise power at the output of the sampler of Fig. 4 (a) can be approximated with Nout( rms) where Bneq is the noise bandwidth of the front-end filter and Nin =V2 n,in (f) represents the wideb... |

1 |
A model for predicting sampler RF bandwidth and conversion loss
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- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1p 10p Sampling capacitance [F] Fig. 5. Noise figure of a simple voltage-domain subsampler as a function of sampling capacitance for different subsampling rates. and-hold-based voltage-domain sampler =-=[22]-=-. Like the noise figure of the simplified sampler model presented in Fig. 4, the bandwidth limitation of a practical sampler due to the finite switch state transition time can result in further degrad... |

1 |
Analysis of Accumulated Timing-Jitter in the Time Domain
- SS
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... converted into noise in the sampled signal, which, due to the sampling, folds onto the Nyquist band of the sampler, degrading the output SNR. It has been shown by statistical time-domain analysis in =-=[24]-=- that the achievable SNR in voltage sampling for a sinusoidal input signal due to uncorrelated random timing jitter in the sampling clock signal can be expressed as SNR σt 1 10 2 1-e -ω = log --------... |

1 |
Akazawa Y & Wakimoto T
- Shinagawa
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...deviation of the normally (Gaussian) distributed timing jitter. For low input frequencies and small σ t values, (8) can be approximated with SNR σt ≈20log(1/(2πf inσ t )), an expression also given in =-=[25]-=- as a result of a simpler time-domain analysis. The obtainable SNR due to timing jitter is hence approximately inversely proportional to the input signal frequency, and therefore limits the achievable... |

1 |
A 900-MHz RF front-end with integrated discrete-time filtering
- DH, Hwang, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...idal signal V in (t)=Asin(2πf in t), an approximate expression for the power spectral density of the sampling error V ε (nT s )=|V in (nT s )-V in (nT s +δ n )| due to timing jitter can be written as =-=[26]-=- Sε() f A2 ----- ( 2πf 4 in) 2 ≈ Sφ( f – fin), where S φ (f) is the power spectral density of the phase noise of the LO signal used to generate the sampling clock signal. Eq. (9) indicates that the ph... |

1 |
A 1.5-V 10-bit 14-MS/s CMOS pipeline analogue-to-digital converter
- AM, PR
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...esistance of the sampling switch is shown to be directly proportional to the input signal frequency [23]. Advanced switching arrangements, such as CMOS transmission gates or bootstrapped MOS switches =-=[28]-=-,[29], can be used to reduce the non-linear signal dependence in baseband sampling, but may have limited capability when operating at high frequencies [30]. The output of elementary voltage-domain sam... |

1 |
Bootstrapped low-voltage analogue switches
- Steensgaard
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ance of the sampling switch is shown to be directly proportional to the input signal frequency [23]. Advanced switching arrangements, such as CMOS transmission gates or bootstrapped MOS switches [28],=-=[29]-=-, can be used to reduce the non-linear signal dependence in baseband sampling, but may have limited capability when operating at high frequencies [30]. The output of elementary voltage-domain sampling... |

1 |
Distortion in sampling
- Jonsson, Signell, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsmission gates or bootstrapped MOS switches [28],[29], can be used to reduce the non-linear signal dependence in baseband sampling, but may have limited capability when operating at high frequencies =-=[30]-=-. The output of elementary voltage-domain sampling circuits is also corrupted by non-linearities caused by charge injection errors [31] and clock-feedthrough effects [32]. As a result of the deficienc... |

1 |
On charge injection in analogue MOS switches and dummy switch compensation techniques
- Eichenberger, Guggenbuhl
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...operating at high frequencies [30]. The output of elementary voltage-domain sampling circuits is also corrupted by non-linearities caused by charge injection errors [31] and clock-feedthrough effects =-=[32]-=-. As a result of the deficiencies in elementary voltage-domain subsampling downconverters, measured noise figures as high as 39 dB [10] have been reported, which has prevented their use in high qualit... |

1 |
Time interleaved converter arrays
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...0 +1)C s )ω p ) is the non-dominant time constant of the integrator. The CT amplitude transfer function of the opamp input noise to the output of the sampler during the integration phase according to =-=(36)-=- is illustrated in Fig. 18. The example circuit parameters are similar to those used for Fig. 15, apart from the output resistance of the G m cell, which is R o =500 kΩ in Fig. 18. It can be seen that... |

1 |
Poberezhskiy G (2004) Sampling and signal reconstruction circuits performing internal anti-aliasing filtering and their influence on the design of digital receivers and transmitters
- Poberezhskiy
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nstants. The input current can in principle also be weighted with a continuous-time weighting function by multiplying it by a CT multiplier and integrating the product over the output sampling period =-=[37]-=-. Practical realization of discrete multiplier values is usually more straightforward, however, and enables simpler digital controllability of the FIR tap coefficients. The ideal transfer function of ... |

1 |
Charge sampling analogueue FIR filter
- Xu, Yuan
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulse-response (IIR) filtering operation to the charge-sampling process (see Paper VI, [35]). Furthermore, it is also possible to use time-interleaved and pipelined sampling operation, as described in =-=[38]-=- and in Paper VII, to increase the output read-out rate f s of the FIR sampler for a given FIR filter tap count N. 3.3 Elementary charge-domain FIR sampler configurations The notches of the CT lowpass... |

1 |
A Hilbert sampler/filter and complex bandpass SC filter for I/Q demodulation
- Karvonen, Riley, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...liasing front-end noise are derived in the paper, and the results of the analysis are validated with high-level Matlab simulations and compared with measurements made on the test circuit presented in =-=[42]-=-. The results of the simplified noise analysis indicate that the resulting output SNR due to broadband input noise can ideally be improved by 3 dB by doubling the number of filtering taps in the sampl... |

1 |
The Stanford Light Fields Archive
- unknown authors
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onse of a selective target FIR filtering function with arbitrary fractional number tap coefficients to FIR filter taps from a set of spesific quantization levels {+1, -1, 0} by means of ΔΣ modulation =-=[43]-=-. The quantized FIR tap coefficients are further employed in the charge-domain sampler with an embedded FIRs39 filtering function. The simple FIR filter tap coefficients ‘+1’, ‘-1’, and ‘0’ can be imp... |

1 |
Staszewski RB (2004) Direct RF sampling mixer with recursive filtering in charge domain
- Muhammad
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y of an active integrator based implementation for achieving an accurate built-in FIR anti-aliasing filtering response. For comparison, a measured notch suppression of less than 40 dB was reported in =-=[45]-=- for a passive integrator based charge-domain RF sampler with an 8-tap sinc-type FIR function. It is worth noting, however, that the maximum attenuation at the notch of the sinc response is a somewhat... |

1 |
Device mismatch and tradeoffs in the design of analogue circuits
- PR
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ables. Moreover, it is assumed that the matching of the binary-weighted MOS transistors, and thereby their binary-weighted sub-currents, is proportional to the transistor area1) by 1⁄ W⋅L as shown in =-=[48]-=-. That is, if the relative mismatch of the current component through a minimum-sized transistor controlled by the LSB bit bk [0] is σi0 /i0 , for example, the relative mismatch for the current through... |

1 |
A Flexible 128 Channel Silicon Strip Detector Instrumentation Integrated Circuit With Sparse Data Readout
- SA, WC, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Discussion Although the technique of signal acquisition by charge integration was already being used in the 1980’s in the context of charge-sensitive amplifiers for signal detection and read-out (see =-=[49]-=-,[50]), the technique has only recently been adopted for high-frequency signal sampling in telecommunication applications. One of the first realizations of integrating charge-sampling circuits for the... |

1 |
Fast analogue integrated circuits for particle physics
- HH
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssion Although the technique of signal acquisition by charge integration was already being used in the 1980’s in the context of charge-sensitive amplifiers for signal detection and read-out (see [49],=-=[50]-=-), the technique has only recently been adopted for high-frequency signal sampling in telecommunication applications. One of the first realizations of integrating charge-sampling circuits for the purp... |

1 |
Kalmár: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Qualifying Milling Processes (in Hungarian), diploma Thesis
- unknown authors
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DR of 72 dB for a 320.25-MHz input signal was introduced. A 500 MS/s integrating charge-sampling circuit in 0.25-μm CMOS with a 42-dB dynamic range at 250 MHz was demonstrated by G. Xu and J. Yuan in =-=[52]-=-. It is worth noting that G. Xu and J. Yuan have also presented theoretical analysis of the performance of the charge-sampling method [20],[53], which partially overlaps with some of the theoretical a... |

1 |
Sampling with weighted integration for digital receivers
- Poberezhskiy, Poberezhskiy
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...antialiasing filtering functions into high-frequency signal sampling. Theoretical work on incorporating anti-aliasing filtering into signal sampling by weighted integration has been presented earlier =-=[54]-=-, but there have been only a few practical circuit-level realizations of charge-domain samplers with embedded FIR filtering capabilities demonstrated to date. A first-round prototype circuit for the q... |

1 |
UW, Moschytz GS & Melchior H
- DC, Sigg, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te FIR filtering into sampling by other, more conventional analogue signal processing and sampling techniques. Real-valued voltage-domain SC-based FIR filtering was used for baseband sampling e.g. in =-=[55]-=- and [56], for example, and for decimating downconversion in IF sampling in [57]. Voltage-domain sampling has also been used for complex-valued FIR and image rejection filtering [58],[59], and more re... |