## Map Calculus in GIS: a proposal and demonstration

Citations: | 5 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Haklay_mapcalculus,

author = {Mordechai (muki Haklay},

title = {Map Calculus in GIS: a proposal and demonstration},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper provides a new representation for fields (continuous surfaces) in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), based on the notion of spatial functions and their combinations. Following Tomlin’s (1990) Map Algebra, the term “Map Calculus” is used for this new representation. In Map Calculus, GIS layers are stored as functions, and new layers can be created by combinations of other functions. This paper explains the principles of Map Calculus and demonstrates the creation of function-based layers and their supporting management mechanism. The proposal is based on Church’s (1941) Lambda Calculus and elements of functional computer languages (such as Lisp or Scheme).

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Citation Context ...p Calculus-enabled GIS will enable the representation of geographical objects such as DEMs or fuzzy classifications of soils. Based on existing applications of data surfaces (Thurstain-Goodwin, 2003; =-=Lloyd et al. 2003-=-), it is likely the spatial analysis of socio-economic variables is the first area of research that will benefit from Map Calculus-enabled GIS. In recent years, modelling efforts focused on the use of... |

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Citation Context ...rowing from a wide range of languages including Lisp (Wall, 1999). Therefore, it is capable of evaluating expressionssMap Calculus in GIS Page 15 of 26 and, in effect, implements the Lambda Calculus (=-=Dominus, 1999-=-). It is this property that enabled the use of Perl to imitate the implementation of Map Calculus-enabled GIS. It must be stated that the prototype uses very simple spatial functions (based on distanc... |

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Citation Context ...for research. In general, a Map Calculus-enabled GIS will hold the templates for various spatial functions, which can be local (like distance), neighbourhood and connectivity functions (Tomlin, 1990; =-=Samet, 1995-=-). Such a template, as in the example above, will enable the storage and calculation of distance from a given point, a set of points, lines or polygons. More sophisticated templates will be needed for... |

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Citation Context ...piecewise functions in Map Calculus-enabled GIS will enable the representation of geographical objects such as DEMs or fuzzy classifications of soils. Based on existing applications of data surfaces (=-=Thurstain-Goodwin, 2003-=-; Lloyd et al. 2003), it is likely the spatial analysis of socio-economic variables is the first area of research that will benefit from Map Calculus-enabled GIS. In recent years, modelling efforts fo... |

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Citation Context ... package was selected because it enables the use of Perl as a scripting language and, therefore, can be enhanced quite easily using widely available Perl libraries. It is important to note that Perl (=-=Wall & Schwartz, 1991-=-) is not a functional language, but rather an imperative one. However, Perl has hybrid origins, and it was designed by borrowing from a wide range of languages including Lisp (Wall, 1999). Therefore, ... |