## Formal support for representing and automating semantic interoperability (2004)

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Venue: | In The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. ESWS 2004. Proceedings, LNCS 3053 |

Citations: | 11 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kalfoglou04formalsupport,

author = {Yannis Kalfoglou and Marco Schorlemmer},

title = {Formal support for representing and automating semantic interoperability},

booktitle = {In The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. ESWS 2004. Proceedings, LNCS 3053},

year = {2004},

pages = {45--60},

publisher = {Springer}

}

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### Abstract

Abstract. Semantic interoperability has become a key issue for realizing the Semantic Web in its full potential. However, there is a lot of controversy regarding the meaning and scope of the term and scarce formal approaches to the problem of semantic heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss these approaches and propose a formalisation of semantic interoperability based on the Barwise-Seligman theory of information flow. We argue for a theoretical framework that favours the analysis and implementation of semantic interoperability scenarios. We present an example case of such a scenario where our framework has been applied as well as variations of it in the domain of ontology mapping. 1

### Citations

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Citation Context ...plied as well as variations of it in the domain of ontology mapping. 1 Introduction The problem of resolving semantic heterogeneity has been identified in the past in the field of federated databases =-=[20]-=- as one of the core challenges for achieving semantic interoperability. Despite collective efforts from researchers and industrialists it remains largely unsolved. Recently, the same challenge surface... |

792 |
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Citation Context ...ry capable of describing under which circumstances information flow occurs. Although there is no such theory yet, the most promising effort was initiated by Barwise and Perry with situation semantics =-=[2]-=-, which was further developed by Devlin into a theory of information [8]. Barwise and Seligman’s channel theory is currently the latest stage of this endeavour [3], in which they propose a mathematica... |

482 |
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Citation Context ...hey share exactly the same subclass of first-order models of the common ontology. In the particular case of Description Logics, equality is defined in terms of an interpretation function for concepts =-=[1]-=-, and we say that two conceptssand are equivalent, ¡ and writes£¢ if and ¡ only ifs¥¤§¦ ¤ ¤ ¨ for all interpretations ¨ . An interpretation consists of © a ¡ non-empty set (the domain of interpretatio... |

467 | Knowledge Representation: logical, philosophical and computational foundations. Brooks/Cole
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Citation Context ...o Sowa, to integrate two ontologies means to derive a new ontology that facilitates interoperability between systems based on the original ontologies, and he distinguishes three levels of integration =-=[21]-=-: Alignment—a mapping of concepts and relations to indicate equivalence—, partial compatibility—an alignment that supports equivalent inferences and computations on equivalent concepts and relations—,... |

451 |
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Citation Context ...operability can be built upon a mathematical theory capable of describing under which circumstances information flow occurs. Although there is no such theory yet, there have been many notable efforts =-=[9, 8, 3]. -=-A good place to start establishing a foundation for formalising semantic interoperability is Barwise and Seligman’s channel theory, a mathematical model that aims at establishing the laws that gover... |

307 |
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Citation Context ...h contravariance is a recurrent theme in logic and mathematics and has been thoroughly studied within the context of Chu spaces [2, 12]; it also underlies the mathematical theory of concept formation =-=[11].s-=-This basic construct captures the information flow between components A1 and A2. Note that, in Barwise and Seligman’s model it is the particular tokens that carry information and that information fl... |

242 |
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Citation Context ...rs. Although there is no such theory yet, the most promising effort was initiated by Barwise and Perry with situation semantics [2], which was further developed by Devlin into a theory of information =-=[8]-=-. Barwise and Seligman’s channel theory is currently the latest stage of this endeavour [3], in which they propose a mathematical model that aims at establishing the laws that govern the flow of infor... |

234 |
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Citation Context ...e and Perry with situation semantics [2], which was further developed by Devlin into a theory of information [8]. Barwise and Seligman’s channel theory is currently the latest stage of this endeavour =-=[3]-=-, in which they propose a mathematical model that aims at establishing the laws that govern the flow of information. It is a general model that attempts to describe the information flow in any kind of... |

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Citation Context ...ttempts to resolve semantic heterogeneity, and also from peripheral areas where inconsistency has shown that it is an endemic characteristic of distributed systems and we should learn to live with it =-=[9]-=-, has prompted us to look at this challenge from another angle: achieve the necessary and sufficient semantic interoperability even if it means that we will not resolve semantic heterogeneity complete... |

192 | FCA-MERGE: Bottom-Up Merging of Ontologies
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Citation Context ...ty scenarios. Madhavan and his colleagues define the semantics in terms of instances in the domain [15]. This is also the case, for example, in Stumme and Maedche’s ontology merging method, FCA-Merge =-=[22]-=-, where the semantics of a concept symbol is captured through the instances classified to that symbol. These instances are documents, and a document is classified to a concept symbol if it contains a ... |

112 | A.Y.Halevy; Representing and Reasoning about Mappings between Domain Models
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Citation Context ...ructures, interpretation, and satisfaction. This appears to be heavyweight for certain interoperability scenarios. Madhavan and his colleagues define the semantics in terms of instances in the domain =-=[15]-=-. This is also the case, for example, in Stumme and Maedche’s ontology merging method, FCA-Merge [22], where the semantics of a concept symbol is captured through the instances classified to that symb... |

49 |
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Citation Context ...oretic constructions to distinguish them from their usual meaning. 5 Such contravariance is a recurrent theme in logic and mathematics and has been thoroughly studied within the context of Chu spaces =-=[2, 12]; -=-it also underlies the mathematical theory of concept formation [11].sThis basic construct captures the information flow between components A1 and A2. Note that, in Barwise and Seligman’s model it is... |

46 | Information Flow
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Citation Context ...operability can be built upon a mathematical theory capable of describing under which circumstances information flow occurs. Although there is no such theory yet, there have been many notable efforts =-=[9, 8, 3]. -=-A good place to start establishing a foundation for formalising semantic interoperability is Barwise and Seligman’s channel theory, a mathematical model that aims at establishing the laws that gover... |

40 |
IF-Map: an ontology mapping method based on Information Flow theory
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be achieved following this framework, as it constitutes the theoretical foundation of a semantic interoperability scenario. In fact, we have proposed an IF-based method to assist in ontology mapping =-=[14]-=-, and in Section 5 we discuss how it relates to this framework. 4.1 Community IF Classifications UK and US governments use different ontologies to represent their respective ministries; therefore, we ... |

35 | Resolving terminological heterogeneity in ontologies
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-order logic, equivalence is approximated via the precise model-theoretic concept of first-order equivalence. This is the usual approach to formal semantic interoperability and integration; see e.g., =-=[4, 6, 18, 24]-=-. In Ciocoiu and Nau’s treatment of the translation problem between knowledge sources that have been written in different knowledge representation languages, semantics is specified by means of a commo... |

34 | IF-Map: An ontologymapping method based on information-flow theory
- Kalfoglou, Schorlemmer
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be achieved following this framework, as it constitutes the theoretical foundation of a semantic interoperability scenario. In fact, we have proposed an IF-based method to assist in ontology mapping =-=[15]-=-, and in Section 5 we briefly discuss how it relates to this framework. 4.1 Community IF Classifications UK and US governments use different ontologies to represent their respective ministries; theref... |

30 | Malcolm: Formalising Ontologies and Their Relations
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-order logic, equivalence is approximated via the precise model-theoretic concept of first-order equivalence. This is the usual approach to formal semantic interoperability and integration; see e.g., =-=[4, 6, 18, 24]-=-. In Ciocoiu and Nau’s treatment of the translation problem between knowledge sources that have been written in different knowledge representation languages, semantics is specified by means of a commo... |

29 | 2002 Ontology-based Semantics
- Ciocoiu
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-order logic, equivalence is approximated via the precise model-theoretic concept of first-order equivalence. This is the usual approach to formal semantic interoperability and integration; see e.g., =-=[4, 6, 18, 24]-=-. In Ciocoiu and Nau’s treatment of the translation problem between knowledge sources that have been written in different knowledge representation languages, semantics is specified by means of a commo... |

21 |
Creating semantically integrated communities on the world wide web
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...emantically integrated if they can successfully communicate with each other” and that “successful exchange of information means that the agents understand each other and there is guaranteed accuracy” =-=[24]-=-. According to Sowa, to integrate two ontologies means to derive a new ontology that facilitates interoperability between systems based on the original ontologies, and he distinguishes three levels of... |

19 | On the insufficiency of ontologies: problems in knowledge sharing and alternative solutions
- Sliva, Vasconcelos, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ugh, for example when a knowledge base whose inference engine is based on linear logic poses a query to a knowledge base with the same ontology, but whose inferencesengine is based on relevance logic =-=[7]-=-. The former should not accept answers as valid if the inference carried out in order to answer the query was using the contraction inference rule, which is not allowed in linear logic. Here, two conc... |

13 |
The iff foundation for ontological knowledge organization
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- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a foundation for formalising semantic interoperability. A significant effort to develop a framework around the issues of organising and relating ontologies is Kent’s Information Flow Framework (IFF) =-=[12, 13]-=-. IFF uses channel theory in that it exploits its constructs to formally describe the stability and dynamism of conceptual knowledge organisation. Kent also describes a theoretical two-step process th... |

11 |
Categories for the working mathematician
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Citation Context ...aptures the information flow according to the aligned responsibilities. This is done by constructing a classification and a couple of infomorphisms and that correspond to a category-theoretic colimit =-=[16]-=- of the following distributed IF system, which includes the alignment and the contexts of each government:s£¢ �� �� ����� � �� © � � ���s¡§ £¢ �s§ £¢ 4.3 The IF Logic on the Core � ���� ���� � ��� �� ... |

11 |
Knowledge Representation. Brooks/Cole
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o Sowa, to integrate two ontologies means to derive a new ontology that facilitates interoperability between systems based on the original ontologies, and he distinguishes three levels of integration =-=[23]: Alignm-=-ent—a mapping of concepts and relations to indicate equivalence—, partial compatibility—an alignment that supports equivalent inferences and computations on equivalent concepts and relations—,... |

10 |
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- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oretic constructions to distinguish them from their usual meaning. 5 Such contravariance is a recurrent theme in logic and mathematics and has been thoroughly studied within the context of Chu spaces =-=[2, 12]; -=-it also underlies the mathematical theory of concept formation [11].sThis basic construct captures the information flow between components A1 and A2. Note that, in Barwise and Seligman’s model it is... |

7 | A KIF formalization of the IFF category theory ontology
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Citation Context ...ic ontology according to theory interpretations. IFF is currently further developed by the IEEE Standard Upper Ontology working group as a meta-level foundation for the development of upper ontologies=-=[11]-=-. 3.1 IF Classification, Infomorphism, and Channel In channel theory, each component of a distributed system is represented by an IF classifications¦¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©¡s���� £�����¡s������¦�� � , consisting of... |

7 |
Ontology theory
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- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oposes an axiomatic approach instead, inspired on property theory [23], where entailment and equivalence are not model-theoretically defined, but axiomatised in a logical language for ontology theory =-=[17]-=-. Second, since model-theory does not provide proof mechanisms for checking model equivalence, this has to be done indirectly via the theories that specify the models. This assumes that the logical th... |

3 |
The web services scandal: How data semantics have been overlooked in integration solutions
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Citation Context ...y and Integration Semantic interoperability and semantic integration are much contested and fuzzy concepts which have been used over the past decade in a variety of contexts and works. As reported in =-=[19]-=-, in addition, both terms are often used indistinctly, and some view these as the same thing. The ISO/IEC 2382 Information Technology Vocabulary defines interoperability as “the capability to communic... |

2 |
OWL Web Ontology Language Reference
- Group
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es outside the scope of the theoretical framework presented here. We currently represent infomorphisms as custom-made RDF statements but we could use the OWL constructowl:sameAs. As it is reported in =-=[10]-=-,owl:sameAs constructs could be used to represent links from an individual to another individual, and in more expressive versions of the language, like OWL Full,owl:sameAs could be used to define clas... |

2 |
Formalising ontologies and their relations. Database and Expert
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-order logic, equivalence is approximated via the precise model-theoretic concept of first-order equivalence. This is the usual approach to formal semantic interoperability and integration; see e.g., =-=[4, 6, 20, 26] a-=-nd also those based on Description Logics [1]. In Ciocoiu and Nau’s treatment of the translation problem between knowledge sources that have been written in different knowledge representation langua... |

1 |
Semantic integration
- Kent
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a foundation for formalising semantic interoperability. A significant effort to develop a framework around the issues of organising and relating ontologies is Kent’s Information Flow Framework (IFF) =-=[12, 13]-=-. IFF uses channel theory in that it exploits its constructs to formally describe the stability and dynamism of conceptual knowledge organisation. Kent also describes a theoretical two-step process th... |

1 |
Properties, propositions and semantic theory. Computational linguistics and formal semantics, chapter 5
- Turner
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...only if, they classify exactly the same set of documents. Menzel makes similar objections to the use of first-order equivalence and proposes an axiomatic approach instead, inspired on property theory =-=[23]-=-, where entailment and equivalence are not model-theoretically defined, but axiomatised in a logical language for ontology theory [17]. Second, since model-theory does not provide proof mechanisms for... |

1 |
Ontology theory. Ontologies and
- Menzel
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oposes an axiomatic approach instead, inspired on property theory [25], where entailment and equivalence are not model-theoretically defined, but axiomatised in a logical language for ontology theory =-=[19]-=-. Second, since model-theory does not provide proof mechanisms for checking model equivalence, this has to be done indirectly via those theories that specify the models. This assumes that the logical ... |