## Concurrency, Time and Constraints

Venue: | in "Proc. of the Nineteenth International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2003)", LNCS |

Citations: | 2 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Valencia_concurrency,time,

author = {Frank D. Valencia},

title = {Concurrency, Time and Constraints},

booktitle = {in "Proc. of the Nineteenth International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2003)", LNCS},

year = {},

pages = {72--101},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency for systems in which agents (also called processes) interact with one another by telling and asking information in a shared medium. Timed (or temporal) ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. The novelty of timed ccp is that it combines in one framework an operational and algebraic view based upon process calculi with a declarative view based upon temporal logic. This allows the model to benefit from two well-established theories used in the study of concurrency. This essay offers an overview of timed ccp covering its basic background and central developments. The essay also includes an introduction to a temporal ccp formalism called thentcc calculus. 1

### Citations

3360 |
Communication and Concurrency
- Milner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e modal extensions of logic for temporal progression study time in logic reasoning, mature models of concurrency were extended to study time in concurrent activity. For instance, neither Milner’s CCS =-=[23]-=-, Hoare’s CSP [18], nor Petri Nets [31], in their original form, were concerned with temporal behavior but they all have been extended to incorporate an explicit notion of time. Namely, Timed CCS [52]... |

1571 |
The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems
- Manna, Pnueli
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e iff � � false is not valid. A theoretical application of the theory of ntcc is presented in [51] by stating a new positive decidability result for a first-order fragment of Pnueli’s first-order LTL =-=[21]-=-. The result is obtained from a reduction to CLTL satisfiability and thus it also contributes to the understanding of the relationship between (timed) ccp and (temporal) classic logic. 6 Concluding Re... |

1352 | A structural approach to operational semantics
- Plotkin
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The methods by which process terms are endowed with meaning may involve at least three approaches: operational, denotational and algebraic semantics. The operational method was pioneered by Plotkin =-=[32]-=-. An operational semantics interprets a given process term by using transitions (labeled or not) specifying its computational steps. A labeled transition È �s� É specifies that È performs � and then b... |

1273 |
The Temporal Logic of Programs
- Pnueli
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... under some behavioral equivalence (or pre-order). Another way of expressing process specifications, however, is by using temporal logics. These logics were introduced into computer science by Pnueli =-=[33]-=- and thereafter proven to be a good basis for specification as well as for (automatic and machine-assisted) reasoning about concurrent systems. Temporal logics can be classified into linear and branch... |

713 | The esterel synchronous programming language: Design, semantics, implementation
- Berry, Gonthier
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and modeling timed, reactive systems. This model, which has attracted growing attention during the last five years or so, elegantly combines ccp with ideas from the paradigms of Synchronous Languages =-=[3, 15]-=-. As any other model of computation, the tcc model makes an ontological commitment about computation. It emphasizes the view of reactive computation as proceeding deterministically in discrete time un... |

532 | The synchronous dataflow programming language Lustre
- Halbwachs, Caspi, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... expressiveness of tcc languages, but focusing on the capability of tcc to encode synchronous languages. In particular, Tini shows that Argos [22] and a version of Lustre restricted to finite domains =-=[16]-=- can be encoded in tcc. In the context of tcc, Tini [49] introduced a notion of bisimilarity, an elemental process equivalence in concurrency, with a complete and elegant axiomatization for the hiding... |

456 | Concurrent Constraint Programming
- Saraswat, Rinard
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...there is only one possible future whilst in the branching case at may split into alternative futures.s3 Concurrent Constraint Programming Concurrency, Time and Constraints 5 In his seminal PhD thesis =-=[38]-=-, Saraswat proposed concurrent constraint programming as a model of concurrency based on the shared-variables communication model and a few primitive ideas taking root in logic. As informally describe... |

437 |
of Constraints: fundamental properties and applications to picture processing
- Montanari
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormally described in this section, the ccp model elegantly combines logic concepts and concurrency mechanisms. Concurrent constraint programming traces its origins back to Montanari’s pioneering work =-=[26]-=- leading to constraint programming and Shapiro’s concurrent logic programming [45]. The ccp model has received a significant theoretical and implementational attention: Saraswat, Rinard and Panangaden... |

308 | The Oz programming model
- Smolka
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to ccp whilst Montanari and Rossi [35] gave it a (true-concurrent) Petri-Net semantics; De Boer, Gabrielli et al [7] developed an inference system for proving properties of ccp processes; Smolka’s Oz =-=[47]-=- as well as Haridi and Janson’s AKL [17] programming languages are built upon ccp ideas. Description of the model. A fundamental issue of the ccp model is the specification of concurrent systems in te... |

277 |
A family of concurrent logic programming languages
- Shapiro
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and concurrency mechanisms. Concurrent constraint programming traces its origins back to Montanari’s pioneering work [26] leading to constraint programming and Shapiro’s concurrent logic programming =-=[45]-=-. The ccp model has received a significant theoretical and implementational attention: Saraswat, Rinard and Panangaden [44] as well as De Boer, Di Pierro and Palamidessi [6] gave fixed-point denotatio... |

263 | Semantic foundations of concurrent constraint programming
- Saraswat, Rinard, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... constraints of some sort (e.g., synchronization constraints, access-control, actions that must eventually happen, actions that cannot happen, etc). Saraswat’s concurrent constraint programming (ccp) =-=[44]-=- is a well-established formalism for concurrency based upon the shared-variables communication model where interaction arises via constraint-imposition over shared-variables. In ccp, agents can intera... |

232 |
Algebra of communicating processes with abstraction, Theoretical Computer Science 37
- Bergstra, Klop
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocess algebras. There are many different process calculi in the literature mainly agreeing in their emphasis upon algebra. The main representatives are CCS [23], CSP [18], and the process algebra ACP =-=[2]-=-. The distinctions among these calculi arise from issues such as the process constructions considered (i.e., the language of processes), the methods used fors4 Frank D. Valencia giving meaning to proc... |

160 | A model for communicating sequential processes
- Brookes
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...P [18], nor Petri Nets [31], in their original form, were concerned with temporal behavior but they all have been extended to incorporate an explicit notion of time. Namely, Timed CCS [52], Timed CSP =-=[34]-=-, and Timed Petri Nets [53]. The notion of constraint is certainly not rare in concurrency. After all, concurrency is about the interaction of agents and such an interaction often involves constraints... |

107 |
Communication and Mobile Systems: the - Calculus
- Milner
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...doomed to malfunction ÙØ Infinite Behavior. Finally, we need a construct to define infinite behavior. We shall use the operator “�” as a delayed version of the replication operator for the �scalculus =-=[25]-=-. Given a process È , the process � È (8) represents È � Ò�ÜØ È � Ò�ÜØ Ò�ÜØ È � ¡¡¡ ��È, i.e., unboundedly many copies of È , but one at a time. The process � È executes È in one time unit and persist... |

92 | Operational and compositional semantics of synchronous automaton compositions
- Maraninchi
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es from a fixed finite domain. Also Tini [48] explores the expressiveness of tcc languages, but focusing on the capability of tcc to encode synchronous languages. In particular, Tini shows that Argos =-=[22]-=- and a version of Lustre restricted to finite domains [16] can be encoded in tcc. In the context of tcc, Tini [49] introduced a notion of bisimilarity, an elemental process equivalence in concurrency,... |

89 | Foundations of Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming
- Saraswat, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormation in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility [8, 36, 12], stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time =-=[39, 5, 41, 14]-=-. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it combines in one framework an operational and algebraic view based upon ... |

84 |
Fundamentals of a Theory of Asynchronous Information Flow
- Petri
- 1963
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l progression study time in logic reasoning, mature models of concurrency were extended to study time in concurrent activity. For instance, neither Milner’s CCS [23], Hoare’s CSP [18], nor Petri Nets =-=[31]-=-, in their original form, were concerned with temporal behavior but they all have been extended to incorporate an explicit notion of time. Namely, Timed CCS [52], Timed CSP [34], and Timed Petri Nets ... |

74 | Kernel Andorra Prolog and its Computational Model
- Haridi, Jansson
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ave it a (true-concurrent) Petri-Net semantics; De Boer, Gabrielli et al [7] developed an inference system for proving properties of ccp processes; Smolka’s Oz [47] as well as Haridi and Janson’s AKL =-=[17]-=- programming languages are built upon ccp ideas. Description of the model. A fundamental issue of the ccp model is the specification of concurrent systems in terms of constraints. A constraint is a fi... |

67 | Temporal concurrent constraint programming: Denotation, logic and applications
- Nielsen, Palamidessi, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...constructs and the ability of defining multiple forms of time instead of only having a unique global clock. 4.1 More Timed CCP Models Thentcc calculus is generalization of the tcc model originated in =-=[28]-=- by Palamidessi, Nielsen and the present author. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc,ntcc can model unit delays, time-outs, pre-emption ... |

64 | Timed Default Concurrent Constraint Programming
- Saraswat, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e switched on within the next three seconds). Indeed, several timed extensions of ccp have been developed in order to provide settings for the modeling, programming and specification of timed systems =-=[39, 42, 5, 14]-=-. This paper offers an overview of timed ccp with its basic background and various approaches explored by researchers in this field. Furthermore, it offers an introduction to a timed ccp process calcu... |

59 | Proving concurrent constraint programs correct
- Boer, Gabbrielli, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...well as De Boer, Di Pierro and Palamidessi [6] gave fixed-point denotational semantics to ccp whilst Montanari and Rossi [35] gave it a (true-concurrent) Petri-Net semantics; De Boer, Gabrielli et al =-=[7]-=- developed an inference system for proving properties of ccp processes; Smolka’s Oz [47] as well as Haridi and Janson’s AKL [17] programming languages are built upon ccp ideas. Description of the mode... |

49 |
Corrigendum: The power of temporal proofs
- Abadi
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ragment above admits infinite-state processes. Another interesting aspect is that CLTL is first-order. Most first-order LTL’s in computer science are not recursively axiomatizable let alone decidable =-=[1]-=-. Furthermore, [51] proves the decidability of the validity problem for implication of negation-free CLTL formulae. This is done by appealing to the close connection betweenntcc processes and LTL form... |

41 |
A timed concurrent constraint language
- Boer, Gabbrielli, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormation in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility [8, 36, 12], stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time =-=[39, 5, 41, 14]-=-. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it combines in one framework an operational and algebraic view based upon ... |

33 | Programming in timed concurrent constraint languages
- Saraswat, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... hiding-free fragment of tcc. The notion of bisimilarity has also been introduced for ntcc by the present author in his PhD thesis [50]. On the practical side, Saraswat el al introduced Timed Gentzen =-=[40]-=-, a particular tcc-based programming language for reactive-systems implemented in PROLOG. More recently, Saraswat el al released jcc [43], an integration of timed (default) ccp into the popular JAVA p... |

30 | Stochastic processes as concurrent constraint programs
- Gupta, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pended until there is enough information in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility [8, 36, 12], stochastic behavior =-=[13]-=-, and most prominently time [39, 5, 41, 14]. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it combines in one framework an... |

28 | Concurrent semantics for concurrent constraint programming
- Rossi, Montanari
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...etical and implementational attention: Saraswat, Rinard and Panangaden [44] as well as De Boer, Di Pierro and Palamidessi [6] gave fixed-point denotational semantics to ccp whilst Montanari and Rossi =-=[35]-=- gave it a (true-concurrent) Petri-Net semantics; De Boer, Gabrielli et al [7] developed an inference system for proving properties of ccp processes; Smolka’s Oz [47] as well as Haridi and Janson’s AK... |

24 | Computing with continuous change
- Gupta, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormation in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility [8, 36, 12], stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time =-=[39, 5, 41, 14]-=-. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it combines in one framework an operational and algebraic view based upon ... |

22 |
A Temporal Logic for reasoning about Timed Concurrent Constraint Programs
- Boer, Gabbrielli, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...perator— the logic for thentcc case is classic. The system is complete for hiding-free and finite processes. Gabrielli et al also provided a fully-abstract denotational semantics [5] and proof system =-=[4]-=- for the tccp model (see Section 4). The underlying second-order linear temporal logic in [4] can be used for describing input-output behavior. In contrast, the ntcc logic can only be used for the str... |

22 |
A foundation for concurrent constraint programming
- Smolka
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bservable as they describe evolution across the time units. Constraint Systems. For our purposes it will suffice to consider the notion of constraint system based on first-order logic, as was done in =-=[46]-=-. Definition 1 (Constraint System). A constraint system (cs) is a pair ¦�¡ where ¦ is a signature of function and predicate symbols, and ¡ is a decidable theory over ¦ (i.e., a decidable set of senten... |

21 | Robot soccer with lego mindstorms
- Lund, Pagliarini
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC’s) and RCX bricks. PLC’s are often used in timed systems of industrial applications [9], whilst RCX bricks are mainly used to construct autonomous robotic devices =-=[20]-=-. These controllers have external input and output ports. One can attach, for example, sensors of light, touch or temperature to the input ports, and motors, lights or alarms to the output ports. Typi... |

21 |
A finite delay operator in synchronous ccs
- Milner
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this construct is that it allows us to model asynchronous behavior across the time intervals. We use the operator “�” which corresponds to the unbounded but finite delay operator for synchronous CCS =-=[24]-=-. The process �È (7) represents an arbitrary long but finite delay for the activation of È . Thus, � Ø�ÐÐ can be viewed as a message that is eventually delivered but there is no upper bound on the del... |

20 | Nondeterminism and infinite computations in constraint programming
- Boer, Pierro, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...current logic programming [45]. The ccp model has received a significant theoretical and implementational attention: Saraswat, Rinard and Panangaden [44] as well as De Boer, Di Pierro and Palamidessi =-=[6]-=- gave fixed-point denotational semantics to ccp whilst Montanari and Rossi [35] gave it a (true-concurrent) Petri-Net semantics; De Boer, Gabrielli et al [7] developed an inference system for proving ... |

15 | On the Expressive Power of Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages
- NIELSEN, PALAMIDESSI, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocesses. Also, the (parameterless-recursion) tcc model can be expressed in this fragment as, from the expressiveness point of view, the local operator is redundant in tcc with parameterless-recursion =-=[27]-=-. Furthermore, the fragment allows us to express infinite-state processes [51](i.e., processes that can evolve into infinitely many other processes). Hence, it is rather surprising that � ×Ô is decida... |

12 | On the expressiveness of timed concurrent constraint programming. Electronics Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
- Tini
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce is undecidable for the languages from (1), but decidable for the languages from (2). The undecidability result holds even if the process variables take values from a fixed finite domain. Also Tini =-=[48]-=- explores the expressiveness of tcc languages, but focusing on the capability of tcc to encode synchronous languages. In particular, Tini shows that Argos [22] and a version of Lustre restricted to fi... |

9 | Pi+-calculus: A calculus for concurrent processes with constraints
- Díaz, Rueda, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the model; asking agents are suspended until there is enough information in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility =-=[8, 36, 12]-=-, stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time [39, 5, 41, 14]. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it co... |

8 | Proving musical properties Using a temporal Concurrent Constraints calculus
- Rueda, Valencia
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... The applicability of the calculus has been illustrated with several examples of discrete-time systems involving , mutable data structures, robotic devices, multi-agent systems and music applications =-=[37]-=-. Another interesting extension of tcc, which does not consider nondeterminism or unbounded finite-delay, has been proposed in [42]. This extension adds strong preemption: the time-out operations can ... |

6 |
The Assumption Architecture
- FREDSLUND
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...perate in a set of simple stimulus-response rules of the form Á� � ÌÀ�Æ �. The expression � is a condition typically depending on the sensor variables, and � is a command, typically an assignment. In =-=[11]-=- these programs respond to the environment by choosing a rule whose condition is met and executing its command. If we wish to abstract from the particular implementation of the mechanism that chooses ... |

6 |
Distributed concurrent constraint programming
- Réty
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the model; asking agents are suspended until there is enough information in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility =-=[8, 36, 12]-=-, stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time [39, 5, 41, 14]. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it co... |

6 | jcc: Integrating timed default concurrent constraint programming into java
- Saraswat, Jagadeesan, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...On the practical side, Saraswat el al introduced Timed Gentzen [40], a particular tcc-based programming language for reactive-systems implemented in PROLOG. More recently, Saraswat el al released jcc =-=[43]-=-, an integration of timed (default) ccp into the popular JAVA programming language. Rueda et al [37] demonstrated that essential ideas of computer generated music composition can be elegantly represen... |

5 | Concurrent constraint programming with process mobility
- Gilbert, Palamidessi
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the model; asking agents are suspended until there is enough information in the store to answer their query. As other models of concurrency, ccp has been extended to capture aspects such as mobility =-=[8, 36, 12]-=-, stochastic behavior [13], and most prominently time [39, 5, 41, 14]. Timed ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time requirements. A distinctive feature of timed ccp is that it co... |

3 | A process algebra for real-time programs
- Dierks
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocesses. For this purpose we shall model simple behavior of controllers such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC’s) and RCX bricks. PLC’s are often used in timed systems of industrial applications =-=[9]-=-, whilst RCX bricks are mainly used to construct autonomous robotic devices [20]. These controllers have external input and output ports. One can attach, for example, sensors of light, touch or temper... |

3 |
Synchronous programming of systems
- Halbwachs
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and modeling timed, reactive systems. This model, which has attracted growing attention during the last five years or so, elegantly combines ccp with ideas from the paradigms of Synchronous Languages =-=[3, 15]-=-. As any other model of computation, the tcc model makes an ontological commitment about computation. It emphasizes the view of reactive computation as proceeding deterministically in discrete time un... |

2 |
VIN: An ntcc visual language for LEGO Robots. BScThesis, Universidad Javeriana-Cali
- Fernádez, Quintero
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uage. Rueda et al [37] demonstrated that essential ideas of computer generated music composition can be elegantly represented in ntcc. Hurtado and Muñoz [19] in joint work with Fernández and Quintero =-=[10]-=- gave a design and efficient implementation of anntcc-based reactive programming language for LEGO RCX robots [20]—the robotic devices chosen in Section 5.1 as motivating examples. Future Work. Timed ... |

2 |
LMAN: An ntcc Abstract Machine for LEGO Robots. BScThesis, Universidad Javeriana-Cali
- Hurtado, Muñoz
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ult) ccp into the popular JAVA programming language. Rueda et al [37] demonstrated that essential ideas of computer generated music composition can be elegantly represented in ntcc. Hurtado and Muñoz =-=[19]-=- in joint work with Fernández and Quintero [10] gave a design and efficient implementation of anntcc-based reactive programming language for LEGO RCX robots [20]—the robotic devices chosen in Section ... |

2 |
Distributed concurrent constraint programming
- Rty
(Show Context)
Citation Context |