## Model checking for nominal calculi (2005)

Venue: | IN FOSSACS, VOLUME 3441 OF LNCS |

Citations: | 6 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Ferrari05modelchecking,

author = {Gianluigi Ferrari and Ugo Montanari and Emilio Tuosto},

title = {Model checking for nominal calculi},

booktitle = {IN FOSSACS, VOLUME 3441 OF LNCS},

year = {2005},

pages = {1--24},

publisher = {Springer}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Nominal calculi have been shown very effective to formally model a variety of computational phenomena. The models of nominal calculi have often infinite states, thus making model checking a difficult task. In this note we survey some of the approaches for model checking nominal calculi. Then, we focus on History-Dependent automata, a syntax-free automaton-based model of mobility. History-Dependent automata have provided the formal basis to design and implement some existing verification toolkits. We then introduce a novel syntax-free setting to model the symbolic semantics of a nominal calculus. Our approach relies on the notions of reactive systems and observed borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner, and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski. We argue that the symbolic semantics model based on borrowed contexts can be conveniently applied to web service discovery and binding.

### Citations

3218 |
Communication and Concurrency
- Milner
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s been proved to be an effective basis for verification based on semantics-equivalence of system abstractions described in some process calculus, i.e. Milner’s Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) =-=[58]-=-. Bisimilarity is a co-inductive relation defined over a special class of automata called labelled transition systems. A generic labelled transition system (LTS) describes the evolution of a system by... |

2426 | Compositional model checking
- Clarke, Long, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tation approach.s3 Model Checking Model Checking for Nominal Calculi 5 Probably, the most successful formal technique applied in practice in the verification of systems is model checking (we refer to =-=[18]-=- for a detailed introduction to this field). Roughly speaking, model checking is used to determine whether a system abstraction (expressed as an automata or a term of a process calculus) satisfies a p... |

1298 |
Symbolic Model Checking
- McMillan
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ormula it is necessary to prove that the system is a model of the formula. Tools supporting model checking techniques have matured to be used in practice (e.g. the SPIN model checker [45, 46] and SMV =-=[57]-=-). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA [23], SLAM [3] and BLA... |

1266 | The model checker spin
- Holzmann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pect to a given formula it is necessary to prove that the system is a model of the formula. Tools supporting model checking techniques have matured to be used in practice (e.g. the SPIN model checker =-=[45, 46]-=- and SMV [57]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA [23], SLA... |

996 | A calculus of mobile processes
- Milner, Parrow, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...anari and Pistore in 1995 [62]. HD-automata [62, 63, 71] have been shown a suitable automata-based model for representing Petri nets, CCS with causality and localities and some versions of π-calculus =-=[59, 75]-=-. ⋆ Work supported by European Union project PROFUNDIS, Contract No. IST-2001-33100. V. Sassone (Ed.): FOSSACS 2005, LNCS 3441, pp. 1–24, 2005. c○ Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005s2 G. Ferrari, ... |

786 | A calculus for cryptographic protocols: the spi calculus
- Abadi, Gordon
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...formation flow is done by verifying that the abstraction of the system P is equivalent to another abstraction obtained by suitably restricting the behaviour of P. A similar idea has been exploited in =-=[1]-=- for the analysis of cryptographic protocols. Bisimilarity [69] has been proved to be an effective basis for verification based on semantics-equivalence of system abstractions described in some proces... |

655 |
Concurrency and automata on infinite sequences
- Park
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e system P is equivalent to another abstraction obtained by suitably restricting the behaviour of P. A similar idea has been exploited in [1] for the analysis of cryptographic protocols. Bisimilarity =-=[69]-=- has been proved to be an effective basis for verification based on semantics-equivalence of system abstractions described in some process calculus, i.e. Milner’s Calculus of Communicating Systems (CC... |

571 | Bandera: Extracting finite-state models from java source code
- Corbett, Dwyer, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [45, 46] and SMV [57]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA =-=[23]-=-, SLAM [3] and BLAST [43]). Model checking presents several advantages. It is completely automatic, provided that finiteness of the system (the model) is guaranteed. Usually, it provides counterexampl... |

470 | S (2000) Model checking programs
- Visser, Havelund, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... model checker [45, 46] and SMV [57]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder =-=[10]-=-, BANDERA [23], SLAM [3] and BLAST [43]). Model checking presents several advantages. It is completely automatic, provided that finiteness of the system (the model) is guaranteed. Usually, it provides... |

446 | Lazy abstraction
- Henzinger, Jhala, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA [23], SLAM [3] and BLAST =-=[43]-=-). Model checking presents several advantages. It is completely automatic, provided that finiteness of the system (the model) is guaranteed. Usually, it provides counterexamples when a system does not... |

445 |
The SPIN Model Checker, Primer and Reference Manual
- Holzmann
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pect to a given formula it is necessary to prove that the system is a model of the formula. Tools supporting model checking techniques have matured to be used in practice (e.g. the SPIN model checker =-=[45, 46]-=- and SMV [57]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA [23], SLA... |

440 | The ⇡-calculus: a Theory of Mobile Processes - Sangiorgi, Walker - 2001 |

361 | Formal methods: State of the art and future directions
- Clarke, Wing
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nce In the last thirty years the application of formal methods to software engineering has generated techniques and tools to deal with the various facets of the software development process (see e.g. =-=[19]-=- and the references therein). One of the main advantages of exploiting formal techniques consists of the possibility of constructing abstractions that approximate behaviours of the system under develo... |

357 |
Three partition refinement algorithms
- PAIGE, E
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ition refinement algorithm [34]. They have a very important practical fall-out: for instance, the problem of deciding bisimilarity is reduced to the problem of computing the minimal transition system =-=[67, 29, 49]-=-. Moreover, the minimal automaton is indistinguishable from the original one with respect to many behavioural properties (e.g., bisimilarity) and properties expressed in most modal or temporal logics.... |

262 | Automated analysis of cryptographic protocols using murphi
- Mitchell, Mitchell, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

202 |
The Concurrency Workbench: A semantics-based tool for the verification of finite-state systems
- Cleaveland, Parrow, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al toolkits for the verification of properties. Indeed, finite state verification environments have enjoyed substantial and growing use over the last years. Here, we mention the Concurrency WorkBench =-=[21]-=-, the Meije-FC2 tools [8] and the JACK toolkit [7] to cite a few. Several systems of considerable complexity have been formalised and proved correct by exploiting these semantics-based verification en... |

178 |
CCS expressions, finite state processes, and three problems of equivalence
- Kanellakis, Smolka
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ition refinement algorithm [34]. They have a very important practical fall-out: for instance, the problem of deciding bisimilarity is reduced to the problem of computing the minimal transition system =-=[67, 29, 49]-=-. Moreover, the minimal automaton is indistinguishable from the original one with respect to many behavioural properties (e.g., bisimilarity) and properties expressed in most modal or temporal logics.... |

154 |
Symbolic bisimulations
- Hennessy, Lin
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pproaches of both families without the ambition of being exhaustive. Among the syntax-based, the most efficient approaches for finite-state verification rely on symbolic semantics. Symbolic semantics =-=[42, 6, 54]-=-, generalise standard operational semantics by keeping track of equalities among names: transitions are derived in the context of such constraints. The main advantage of the symbolic semantics is that... |

145 | A new approach to abstract syntax involving binders
- Gabbay, Pitts
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntics. A well studied approach is based on the so-called permutation model, whose ingredients are a set of names and an action of its group of permutations (renaming substitutions) on an abstract set =-=[37, 40, 47, 64]-=-. In this setting, transition systems for nominal calculi are constructed via suitable functors over the underlying category of names and permutations: the internal theory of names. It is important to... |

139 |
The SLAM Toolkit
- Ball, Rajamani
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd SMV [57]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder [10], BANDERA [23], SLAM =-=[3]-=- and BLAST [43]). Model checking presents several advantages. It is completely automatic, provided that finiteness of the system (the model) is guaranteed. Usually, it provides counterexamples when a ... |

138 | Service-Oriented Computing: Concepts, Characteristics and Directions
- Papazoglou
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Web are developed by combining and integrating Web services. The Web service framework has emerged as the standard and natural architecture to realize the so called Service Oriented Computing (SOC) =-=[24, 68]-=-. In [33] a Web-service infrastructure was developed integrating verification toolkits for checking properties of mobile systems and related higher-level toolkits for verifying security protocols. The... |

127 | Modern Concurrency Abstractions for C
- Benton, Cardelli, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... phenomena of global computing systems (see e.g. [80, 41]). Moreover, nominal calculi provide a basic programming model that has been incorporated in suitable libraries or novel programming languages =-=[22, 4]-=-. Finally, the usefulness of names has been also emphasised in practice. For instance, Needham [66] pointed out the role of names for the security of distributed systems. The World Wide Web provides a... |

116 | R.: Deriving bisimulation congruences for reactive systems - Leifer, Milner |

111 | Towards a completeness result for model checking of security protocols
- Lowe
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

89 | The Next Step in Web Services
- Curbera, Khalaf, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Web are developed by combining and integrating Web services. The Web service framework has emerged as the standard and natural architecture to realize the so called Service Oriented Computing (SOC) =-=[24, 68]-=-. In [33] a Web-service infrastructure was developed integrating verification toolkits for checking properties of mobile systems and related higher-level toolkits for verifying security protocols. The... |

87 | An implementation of an efficient algorithm for bisimulation equivalence
- Fernandez
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ition refinement algorithm [34]. They have a very important practical fall-out: for instance, the problem of deciding bisimilarity is reduced to the problem of computing the minimal transition system =-=[67, 29, 49]-=-. Moreover, the minimal automaton is indistinguishable from the original one with respect to many behavioural properties (e.g., bisimilarity) and properties expressed in most modal or temporal logics.... |

71 | From rewrite rules to bisimulation congruences
- Sewell
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ngruence for the π-calculus. 5.2 Reactive Systems A systematic method for deriving bisimulation congruence from reduction rules has been proposed by Leifer and Milner in [53, 52], on turn inspired by =-=[79]-=-, where the idea of interpreting p c −→ q as “in the context c, p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced i... |

66 | Theoretical foundations for compensations in flow composition languages
- Bruni, Melgratti, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

65 |
A theory of bisimulation for the π-calculus
- Tiu, Sangiorgi, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...main advantage of the symbolic semantics is that it yields a smaller transition system. The idea of symbolic semantics has been exploited to provide a convenient characterisation of open bisimilarity =-=[74]-=- and in the design of the corresponding bisimulation checker, the Mobility WorkBench (MWB) [83]. The MWB adapts to the case of the π-calculus the on-the-fly approach of [30], where the bisimulation re... |

63 | Model checking mobile processes
- Dam
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... now review some of the approaches to model check properties of nominal calculi. The MWB provides a model checking functionality. This is based on the implementation of the tableau-based proof system =-=[25, 26]-=- for the π-µ calculus, an extension of the propositional µ-calculus in which it is possible to express name parameterisation and quantifications over names. The MCC system also provides a model checki... |

62 | Deriving Bisimulation Congruences in the DPO Approach to Graph Rewriting with Borrowed Contexts
- Ehrig, König
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced in [65], yielding the notion of dynamic bisimilarity. Following =-=[28]-=-, we will call borrowed context the context c. The basic idea of [53, 52] is to express “minimality” conditions for electing the context c among the (possibly infinite) ones that allow p to react. The... |

59 | Model checking for security protocols
- Marrero, Clarke, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n of the system (the π-calculus process) to be verified. The most relevant examples of application of model checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols =-=[56, 20]-=-. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented [60, 55, 27, 38]. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of ... |

58 | CAPSL Integrated Protocol Environment
- Denker, Millen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

56 | Computing symbolic models for verifying cryptographic protocols
- Fiore, Abadi
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

56 |
Bigraphs and transitions
- Jensen, Milner
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...deriving LTSs from reduction rules look relevant. In particular, the approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system, introduced by Leifer and Milner [53, 52], used by Jensen and Milner in =-=[48]-=- for deriving a LTS for bigraphs and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski [76, 78, 50] using G-categories and adhesive categories. In this section we will consider a simplified version of... |

44 | Foundations of web transactions
- Laneve, Zavattaro
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

43 |
The Mobility Workbench — a tool for the π-calculus
- Victor, Moller
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a of symbolic semantics has been exploited to provide a convenient characterisation of open bisimilarity [74] and in the design of the corresponding bisimulation checker, the Mobility WorkBench (MWB) =-=[83]-=-. The MWB adapts to the case of the π-calculus the on-the-fly approach of [30], where the bisimulation relation is constructed during the state space generation. The MWB checks for open bisimilarity i... |

40 | Jocaml: mobile agents for Objective-Caml
- Conchon, Fessant
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... phenomena of global computing systems (see e.g. [80, 41]). Moreover, nominal calculi provide a basic programming model that has been incorporated in suitable libraries or novel programming languages =-=[22, 4]-=-. Finally, the usefulness of names has been also emphasised in practice. For instance, Needham [66] pointed out the role of names for the security of distributed systems. The World Wide Web provides a... |

39 |
R.: Classification of Security Properties
- Focardi, Gorrieri
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e. For instance, it is possible to verify whether an abstraction of the implementation is consistent with its abstract specification. Another example is provided by the information leak detection; in =-=[39]-=- the analysis of information flow is done by verifying that the abstraction of the system P is equivalent to another abstraction obtained by suitably restricting the behaviour of P. A similar idea has... |

35 | The integration project for the JACK Environment
- Bouali, Gnesi, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ront end towards the π-calculus and the translation algorithm for the simplest version of HD-automata have been implemented in the HAL tool [31, 32], which relies on the JACK verification environment =-=[7]-=- for handling the resulting ordinary automata. The minimisation algorithm, naturally suggested by the coalgebraic framework, has been implemented in the Mihda toolkit [35, 36] within the European proj... |

35 |
A spatial logic for concurrency
- Cardelli, Caires
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... proved suitable to express many properties of interest of concurrent systems, similar logics for global computing systems are still lacking. Only recently a new class of modal logics, spatial logics =-=[15, 16]-=-, has been introduced to address the characterising issues of global computing. In our opinion, this explains why traditionally model checking has been exploited on foundational models for global comp... |

34 | Orchestrating Transactions in the Join Calculus
- Bruni, Laneve, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

34 | Operational congruences for reactive systems
- Leifer
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ble, still guaranteeing that all behaviours are eventually explored. The approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system and of observable borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner =-=[53, 52]-=- and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski [76, 78, 50] using G-categories and adhesive categories. The reduction semantics of reactive systems is extended in order to introduce as borrowe... |

33 | Dynamic congruence vs. progressing bisimulation for ccs
- Montanari, Sassone
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...where the idea of interpreting p c −→ q as “in the context c, p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced in =-=[65]-=-, yielding the notion of dynamic bisimilarity. Following [28], we will call borrowed context the context c. The basic idea of [53, 52] is to express “minimality” conditions for electing the context c ... |

29 | Deriving bisimulation congruences using 2-categories
- Sassone, Sobocinski
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ored. The approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system and of observable borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner [53, 52] and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski =-=[76, 78, 50]-=- using G-categories and adhesive categories. The reduction semantics of reactive systems is extended in order to introduce as borrowed contexts both the variable instantiations needed in the transitio... |

28 | A Framework for the Analysis of Security Protocols
- Boreale, Buscemi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... where a finite number of participants run in parallel and all the participants are non-recursive processes. Recently, symbolic ad-hoc model checkers have been proposed to overcome these issues e.g., =-=[5, 82, 9, 2]-=-. Despite the technical differences, all these approaches check a given property by generating a “symbolic” state space, where states collect constraints over the names involved in the execution. If t... |

28 | An operational semantics for StAC, a language for modelling long-running business transactions
- Butler, Ferreira
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

28 |
Minimizing transition systems for name passing calculi: A co-algebraic formulation
- Ferrari, Montanari, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...veloped for this kind of HD-automata, which extends the applicability of the approach to other nominal calculi and guarantees the existence of the minimal automaton within the same bisimilarity class =-=[64, 34]-=-. HD-automata also constitute the formal basis upon which several verification toolkits have been defined and implemented. The front end towards the π-calculus and the translation algorithm for the si... |

28 | History Dependent Automata
- Pistore
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...name meanings. We review some existing syntax-free models for name-passing calculi and focus on History-Dependent automata (HD-automata), introduced by Montanari and Pistore in 1995 [62]. HD-automata =-=[62, 63, 71]-=- have been shown a suitable automata-based model for representing Petri nets, CCS with causality and localities and some versions of π-calculus [59, 75]. ⋆ Work supported by European Union project PRO... |

26 | Complete inference systems for weak bisimulation equivalences in the pi-calculus
- Lin
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pproaches of both families without the ambition of being exhaustive. Among the syntax-based, the most efficient approaches for finite-state verification rely on symbolic semantics. Symbolic semantics =-=[42, 6, 54]-=-, generalise standard operational semantics by keeping track of equalities among names: transitions are derived in the context of such constraints. The main advantage of the symbolic semantics is that... |