## Model checking for nominal calculi (2005)

Venue: | IN FOSSACS, VOLUME 3441 OF LNCS |

Citations: | 6 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Ferrari05modelchecking,

author = {Gianluigi Ferrari and Ugo Montanari and Emilio Tuosto},

title = {Model checking for nominal calculi},

booktitle = {IN FOSSACS, VOLUME 3441 OF LNCS},

year = {2005},

pages = {1--24},

publisher = {Springer}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Nominal calculi have been shown very effective to formally model a variety of computational phenomena. The models of nominal calculi have often infinite states, thus making model checking a difficult task. In this note we survey some of the approaches for model checking nominal calculi. Then, we focus on History-Dependent automata, a syntax-free automaton-based model of mobility. History-Dependent automata have provided the formal basis to design and implement some existing verification toolkits. We then introduce a novel syntax-free setting to model the symbolic semantics of a nominal calculus. Our approach relies on the notions of reactive systems and observed borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner, and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski. We argue that the symbolic semantics model based on borrowed contexts can be conveniently applied to web service discovery and binding.

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Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

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Citation Context ...ntics. A well studied approach is based on the so-called permutation model, whose ingredients are a set of names and an action of its group of permutations (renaming substitutions) on an abstract set =-=[37, 40, 47, 64]-=-. In this setting, transition systems for nominal calculi are constructed via suitable functors over the underlying category of names and permutations: the internal theory of names. It is important to... |

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Citation Context ... phenomena of global computing systems (see e.g. [80, 41]). Moreover, nominal calculi provide a basic programming model that has been incorporated in suitable libraries or novel programming languages =-=[22, 4]-=-. Finally, the usefulness of names has been also emphasised in practice. For instance, Needham [66] pointed out the role of names for the security of distributed systems. The World Wide Web provides a... |

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Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

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Citation Context ...s constructed during the state space generation. The MWB checks for open bisimilarity in the case of (finite-control) pi-calculus processes and has also been reworked to deal with the Fusion calculus =-=[69]-=-. To gain efficiency, the MWB has been extended in [44] with modules implementing certain bisimulation-preserving program transformations, the up-to-techniques (introduced in [72]). Symbolic semantics... |

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Citation Context ...ition refinement algorithm [34]. They have a very important practical fall-out: for instance, the problem of deciding bisimilarity is reduced to the problem of computing the minimal transition system =-=[67, 29, 49]-=-. Moreover, the minimal automaton is indistinguishable from the original one with respect to many behavioural properties (e.g., bisimilarity) and properties expressed in most modal or temporal logics.... |

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Citation Context ...ngruence for the π-calculus. 5.2 Reactive Systems A systematic method for deriving bisimulation congruence from reduction rules has been proposed by Leifer and Milner in [53, 52], on turn inspired by =-=[79]-=-, where the idea of interpreting p c −→ q as “in the context c, p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced i... |

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Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

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Citation Context ...main advantage of the symbolic semantics is that it yields a smaller transition system. The idea of symbolic semantics has been exploited to provide a convenient characterisation of open bisimilarity =-=[74]-=- and in the design of the corresponding bisimulation checker, the Mobility WorkBench (MWB) [83]. The MWB adapts to the case of the π-calculus the on-the-fly approach of [30], where the bisimulation re... |

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Citation Context ... now review some of the approaches to model check properties of nominal calculi. The MWB provides a model checking functionality. This is based on the implementation of the tableau-based proof system =-=[25, 26]-=- for the π-µ calculus, an extension of the propositional µ-calculus in which it is possible to express name parameterisation and quantifications over names. The MCC system also provides a model checki... |

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Citation Context ... p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced in [65], yielding the notion of dynamic bisimilarity. Following =-=[28]-=-, we will call borrowed context the context c. The basic idea of [53, 52] is to express “minimality” conditions for electing the context c among the (possibly infinite) ones that allow p to react. The... |

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Citation Context ...el checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols [56, 20]. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented =-=[60, 55, 27, 38]-=-. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of cryptographic protocols in natural way. For instance, many authentication protocols rely on nonce-challenges wher... |

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Citation Context ...n of the system (the π-calculus process) to be verified. The most relevant examples of application of model checking techniques and nominal calculi are those of the verification of security protocols =-=[56, 20]-=-. Several prototypical tools based on nominal calculi have been in fact designed and implemented [60, 55, 27, 38]. Indeed, nominal calculi provide a solid formal context for expressing many facets of ... |

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Citation Context ...deriving LTSs from reduction rules look relevant. In particular, the approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system, introduced by Leifer and Milner [53, 52], used by Jensen and Milner in =-=[48]-=- for deriving a LTS for bigraphs and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski [76, 78, 50] using G-categories and adhesive categories. In this section we will consider a simplified version of... |

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Citation Context ... model checker [45, 46] and SMV [56]). Recently, these techniques have been adopted to verify properties of programs written in high level programming languages like C++ and Java (e.g. JavaPathFinder =-=[10]-=-, BANDERA [23], SLAM [3] and BLAST [43]). Model checking presents several advantages. It is completely automatic, provided that finiteness of the system (the model) is guaranteed. Usually, it provides... |

45 | Foundations of web transactions
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Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

45 |
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Citation Context ...a of symbolic semantics has been exploited to provide a convenient characterisation of open bisimilarity [74] and in the design of the corresponding bisimulation checker, the Mobility WorkBench (MWB) =-=[83]-=-. The MWB adapts to the case of the π-calculus the on-the-fly approach of [30], where the bisimulation relation is constructed during the state space generation. The MWB checks for open bisimilarity i... |

41 |
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Citation Context ...e. For instance, it is possible to verify whether an abstraction of the implementation is consistent with its abstract specification. Another example is provided by the information leak detection; in =-=[39]-=- the analysis of information flow is done by verifying that the abstraction of the system P is equivalent to another abstraction obtained by suitably restricting the behaviour of P. A similar idea has... |

41 | A theory of bisimulation for the pi-calculus
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Citation Context ...main advantage of the symbolic semantics is that it yields a smaller transition system. The idea of symbolic semantics has been exploited to provide a convenient characterisation of open bisimilarity =-=[73]-=- and in the design of the corresponding bisimulation checker, the Mobility WorkBench (MWB) [81]. The MWB adapts to the case of the pi-calculus the on-the-fly approach of [30], where the bisimulation r... |

40 | Fessant. Jocaml: Mobile agents for objective-cam
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Citation Context ... phenomena of global computing systems (see e.g. [80, 41]). Moreover, nominal calculi provide a basic programming model that has been incorporated in suitable libraries or novel programming languages =-=[22, 4]-=-. Finally, the usefulness of names has been also emphasised in practice. For instance, Needham [66] pointed out the role of names for the security of distributed systems. The World Wide Web provides a... |

38 | Adhesive categories
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ored. The approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system and of observable borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner [52, 51] and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski =-=[75, 76, 49]-=- using G-categories and adhesive categories. The reduction semantics of reactive systems is extended in order to introduce as borrowed contexts both the variable instantiations needed in the transitio... |

37 | The integration project for the jack environment
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Citation Context ...ront end towards the π-calculus and the translation algorithm for the simplest version of HD-automata have been implemented in the HAL tool [31, 32], which relies on the JACK verification environment =-=[7]-=- for handling the resulting ordinary automata. The minimisation algorithm, naturally suggested by the coalgebraic framework, has been implemented in the Mihda toolkit [35, 36] within the European proj... |

35 | Orchestrating transactions in join calculus
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ogy to design and develop global computing systems: several research activities have addressed the theoretical foundations of the SOC paradigm by exploiting formal frameworks based on process calculi =-=[12, 51, 14, 11]-=- (see also [81] for an informal presentation on the usefulness of nominal calculi to design workflow business processes). When looking for a generalisation of parameter passing, logic programming unif... |

35 |
A spatial logic for concurrency
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Citation Context ... proved suitable to express many properties of interest of concurrent systems, similar logics for global computing systems are still lacking. Only recently a new class of modal logics, spatial logics =-=[15, 16]-=-, has been introduced to address the characterising issues of global computing. In our opinion, this explains why traditionally model checking has been exploited on foundational models for global comp... |

35 | Dynamic congruence vs. progressing bisimulation for CCS
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...where the idea of interpreting p c −→ q as “in the context c, p reacts and becomes q” has been proposed. Also, the approach of observing contexts imposed on agents at each step has been introduced in =-=[65]-=-, yielding the notion of dynamic bisimilarity. Following [28], we will call borrowed context the context c. The basic idea of [53, 52] is to express “minimality” conditions for electing the context c ... |

34 | Operational Congruences for Reactive Systems
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Citation Context ...ble, still guaranteeing that all behaviours are eventually explored. The approach we follow relies on the notion of reactive system and of observable borrowed contexts introduced by Leifer and Milner =-=[53, 52]-=- and further developed by Sassone, Lack and Sobocinski [76, 78, 50] using G-categories and adhesive categories. The reduction semantics of reactive systems is extended in order to introduce as borrowe... |

29 | A framework for the analysis of security protocols
- Boreale, Buscemi
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... where a finite number of participants run in parallel and all the participants are non-recursive processes. Recently, symbolic ad-hoc model checkers have been proposed to overcome these issues e.g., =-=[5, 82, 9, 2]-=-. Despite the technical differences, all these approaches check a given property by generating a “symbolic” state space, where states collect constraints over the names involved in the execution. If t... |