## Polarized Higher-Order Subtyping (1997)

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Citations: | 32 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Steffen97polarizedhigher-order,

author = {Martin Steffen},

title = {Polarized Higher-Order Subtyping},

year = {1997}

}

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### Abstract

The calculus of higher order subtyping, known as F ω ≤ , a higher-order polymorphic λ-calculus with subtyping, is expressive enough to serve as core calculus for typed object-oriented languages. The versions considered in the literature usually support only pointwise subtyping of type operators, where two types S U and T U are in subtype relation, if S and T are. In the widely cited, unpublished note [Car90], Cardelli presents F ω ≤ in a more general form going beyond pointwise subtyping of type applications in distinguishing between monotone and antimonotone operators. Thus, for instance, T U1 is a subtype of T U2, if U1 ≤ U2 and T is a monotone operator. My thesis extends F ω ≤ by polarized application, it explores its proof theory, establishing decidability of polarized F ω ≤. The inclusion of polarized application rules leads to an interdependence of the subtyping and the kinding system. This contrasts with pure F ω ≤ , where subtyping depends on kinding but not vice versa. To retain decidability of the system, the equal-bounds subtyping rule for all-types is rephrased in the polarized setting as a mutual-subtype requirement of the upper bounds.