## Merging Partial Behavioural Models (2004)

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Venue: | In Proceedings of 12th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering |

Citations: | 54 - 30 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Uchitel04mergingpartial,

author = {Sebastian Uchitel},

title = {Merging Partial Behavioural Models},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of 12th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering},

year = {2004},

pages = {43--52}

}

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### Abstract

Constructing comprehensive operational models of intended system behaviour is a complex and costly task. Consequently, practitioners have adopted techniques that support incremental elaboration of partial behaviour descriptions. A noteworthy example is the wide adoption of scenario-based notations such as message sequence charts. Scenario-based specifications are partial descriptions that can be incrementally elaborated to cover the system behaviour that is of interest. However, how should partial behavioural models described by different stakeholders with different viewpoints covering different aspects of behaviour be composed? How should partial models of component instances of the same type be put together? In this paper, we propose model merging as a general solution to these questions. We formally define model merging based on observational refinement and show that merging consistent models is a process that should result in a minimal common refinement. Because minimal common refinements are not guaranteed to be unique, we argue that the modeller should participate in the process of elaborating such a model. We also discuss the role of the least common refinement and the greatest lower bound of all minimal common refinements in this elaboration process. In addition, we provide algorithms for i) checking consistency between two models; ii) constructing their least common refinement if one exists; iii) supporting the construction of a minimal common refinement if there is no least common refinement.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...tances into a model for the client component type because all clients should share the same characteristics. How can these partial models be composed? Composition of behavioural models is an old idea =-=[18, 8]-=-; however, its main focus has been on parallel composition which describes how two different components work together. In the context of model elaboration, what we are interested in is composing two p... |

3430 |
Communication and Concurrency
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Citation Context ...tances into a model for the client component type because all clients should share the same characteristics. How can these partial models be composed? Composition of behavioural models is an old idea =-=[18, 8]-=-; however, its main focus has been on parallel composition which describes how two different components work together. In the context of model elaboration, what we are interested in is composing two p... |

383 | Formal Methods: State of the Art and Future Direction
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Citation Context .... General Terms: Design. Keywords: MTS, Merge, Partial Behaviour Models. 1. INTRODUCTION State-based behaviour modeling and analysis has been shown to be successful in uncovering subtle design errors =-=[3]-=-. However, the adoption of such technologies by practitioners Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that c... |

374 | Alloy: A lightweight object modeling notation
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Citation Context ...et. Their condition is more restrictive than our determinacy condition. Our work focuses on operational descriptions. However, an alternative approach is to specify observable behaviour declaratively =-=[12]-=-. Declarative specifications based on classical logics are partial, yet they do not need to describe the unknown properties explicitly: such properties are those for which neither truth nor falsity ca... |

354 |
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Citation Context ...exclude each other. H ′ : at least two concurrent readers and maximum one writer, readers and writers exclude each other. In addition, our choice is in line with process algebra semantics such as FSP =-=[17]-=-. Refinement of MTSs captures the notion of elaboration of a partial description into a more comprehensive one, in which some knowledge over the maybe behaviour has been gained. It can be seen as bein... |

172 |
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Citation Context ...on-based specifications with the behavioural analysis in state-based models. A current limitation of synthesis approaches is that the models being synthesized, e.g., labeled transition systems (LTSs) =-=[13]-=-, are assumed to be complete descriptions of the system behaviour up to some level of abstraction, i.e., the state machine is assumed to completely describe the system behaviour with respect to a fixe... |

172 | Generating statechart designs from scenarios
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Citation Context ...ly on merging models that describe the observable behaviour of a system. On the other hand, merging operational specifications in which system states are explicitly described is frequently done (e.g. =-=[24, 19, 7, 10]-=-). In [24], states are modelled as valuations of state propositions, and states with compatible valuations can be merged. In [7], states can be merged only if they have the same label. [19] proposes a... |

148 |
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Citation Context ...etween these kinds of behaviour are referred to as partial behavioural models, e.g., Partial Labelled Transition Systems (PLTSs) [22], multi-valued state machines [6], Modal Transition Systems (MTSs) =-=[15]-=-, Mixed Transition Systems [5] and multi-valued Kripke structures [2]. Although synthesis of partial behavioural models can provide substantial benefits [22], we have found that such models lack a spe... |

130 | Composition patterns: An approach to designing reusable assets
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Citation Context ...ntext of behavioural model elaboration, namely, model merging. Scenarios are typically provided by different stakeholders with different viewpoints [9], describing different, yet overlapping aspects =-=[4]-=- of the same system. How should these partial models be put together? Alternatively, consider combining behavioural models of component instances of the same type. Typically, several instances of the ... |

104 |
Abstract Interpretation and Partition Refinement for Model Checking
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Citation Context ... are referred to as partial behavioural models, e.g., Partial Labelled Transition Systems (PLTSs) [22], multi-valued state machines [6], Modal Transition Systems (MTSs) [15], Mixed Transition Systems =-=[5]-=- and multi-valued Kripke structures [2]. Although synthesis of partial behavioural models can provide substantial benefits [22], we have found that such models lack a specific concept that is particul... |

102 | From MSCs to Statecharts
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Citation Context ...ting the relation between interactionbased and state-based modeling techniques [20]. In particular, several approaches to the synthesis of state-based models from scenarios-based specifications (e.g. =-=[23, 14]-=-) have been developed. These approaches aim to combine the benefits of the incremental elaboration in interaction-based specifications with the behavioural analysis in state-based models. A current li... |

78 | A framework for multi-valued reasoning over inconsistent viewpoints
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Citation Context ...ly on merging models that describe the observable behaviour of a system. On the other hand, merging operational specifications in which system states are explicitly described is frequently done (e.g. =-=[24, 19, 7, 10]-=-). In [24], states are modelled as valuations of state propositions, and states with compatible valuations can be merged. In [7], states can be merged only if they have the same label. [19] proposes a... |

46 | A Constraint Oriented Proof Methodology based on Modal Transition Systems - Larsen, Steffen, et al. - 1995 |

43 | Analysing inconsistent specifications, in
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Citation Context ...ific concept that is particularly helpful in the context of behavioural model elaboration, namely, model merging. Scenarios are typically provided by different stakeholders with different viewpoints =-=[9]-=-, describing different, yet overlapping aspects [4] of the same system. How should these partial models be put together? Alternatively, consider combining behavioural models of component instances of ... |

29 | Analysis of Inconsistency in Graph-Based Viewpoints
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- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ly on merging models that describe the observable behaviour of a system. On the other hand, merging operational specifications in which system states are explicitly described is frequently done (e.g. =-=[24, 19, 7, 10]-=-). In [24], states are modelled as valuations of state propositions, and states with compatible valuations can be merged. In [7], states can be merged only if they have the same label. [19] proposes a... |

18 |
R.: Symbolic bisimulation minimization
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Citation Context ...ze of the state space of a minimal common refinement of M and N is S = O(|SM | × |SN |). Checking whether M and N are consistent is very similar to checking weak bisimulation, and takes O(L + S × T ) =-=[1]-=-, where T is the number of transitions and L = |LM ∪ LN | is the total number of actions in the merged model. Computing +u and +l does not increase this complexity. Finally, we analyze complexity of t... |

16 | On model checking multiple hybrid views
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- 2004
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Citation Context |

15 |
Synthesis of Behavioural Models from Scenarios
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ting the relation between interactionbased and state-based modeling techniques [20]. In particular, several approaches to the synthesis of state-based models from scenarios-based specifications (e.g. =-=[23, 14]-=-) have been developed. These approaches aim to combine the benefits of the incremental elaboration in interaction-based specifications with the behavioural analysis in state-based models. A current li... |

12 |
Behaviour model elaboration using partial labelled transition systems
- Uchitel, Kramer, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the choice has not yet been made. State-based models that distinguish between these kinds of behaviour are referred to as partial behavioural models, e.g., Partial Labelled Transition Systems (PLTSs) =-=[22]-=-, multi-valued state machines [6], Modal Transition Systems (MTSs) [15], Mixed Transition Systems [5] and multi-valued Kripke structures [2]. Although synthesis of partial behavioural models can provi... |

9 |
Message Sequence Charts
- ITU
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d modeling approaches are generally not suited for providing early feedback, when system descriptions are still partial. In contrast, interaction-based specifications, such as message sequence charts =-=[11]-=-, are becoming increasingly popular. These scenario-based notations are partial behavioural descriptions that promote incremental elaboration of system behaviour. Lately, there has been interest in de... |

4 |
Reusing Verification Information of Incomplete Specifications
- Diaz-Redondo, Pazos-Arias, et al.
- 2002
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Citation Context ...State-based models that distinguish between these kinds of behaviour are referred to as partial behavioural models, e.g., Partial Labelled Transition Systems (PLTSs) [22], multi-valued state machines =-=[6]-=-, Modal Transition Systems (MTSs) [15], Mixed Transition Systems [5] and multi-valued Kripke structures [2]. Although synthesis of partial behavioural models can provide substantial benefits [22], we ... |

3 |
Merging MTSs for a B2B E-Commerce Site". http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~su2/merge/examples
- Uchitel, Chechik
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Citation Context ...th a discussion, summary and directions for future research. Due to space restrictions, this paper does not include a more complex example to illustrate our approach; however, one can be found online =-=[21]-=-. 2. BACKGROUND In this section, we define, exemplify and discuss labelled transition systems, modal transition systems and refinement. We start with the familiar concept of labeled transition systems... |