### BibTeX

@MISC{G_thevocal,

author = {Fant G},

title = {The vocal tract in your pocket},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

The vocal tract netmrk We shall pursue a frequency domain modeling of the vocal tract with an overall supraglottal configuration, as in Fig. 1. The system is a combination of T-network analogs of homogeneous arbitrary length, trans-mission lines, and lumped-element representation of shunting cavities within the nasal system and of vocal cavity wall impedances. The termi-nations Rg, Lo, and RON, LON are the radiation impedances at the lips and at the nostrils. The wall impedances are also equipped with radia-tion resistances to represent the radiation from the neck and cheeks during voiced occlusives. Fant (1960) and Wakita and Fant (1978) for relevant data on radiation load, wall-impedance effects, and Loss ele-ments. Netmrk elements There are basically two different approaches to vocal tract network modeling. CXle is to divide the tract into a relatively large number of equal-length elementary sections. The other is to operate with modules of specified length and area, in which case a complete representation of one-dimensional wave propagation is needed. The latter module can also be applied to the unit-length modeling to increase the accuracy. In general, however, the unit-length approach assumes sufficiently short sections of the order of 0.5 cm that the lumped-element representation, Fig. 2A, is a good approximation. The finite-length model in Fig. 2 is the classical T-network uniquely defined by its series and shunt ele-ments: a = z tgh e/2 1 Under loss-less conditions the characteristic impedance is Z = gc/A, where g = 1.14 x is the density of air and c = 35300 cm/s the velocity of sound under normal speaking conditions. A tube of length 1 has the propagation constant Under loss-less co~itions with a = 0, we note that sinhe = jsin, tgh 0/2 = jt4/2 and cosh 0 = co4B. With a sufficiently short length

### Keyphrases

vocal tract lumped-element representation frequency domain modeling radiation load vocal tract network wall impedance different approach termi-nations rg loss-less co itions t-network analog shunt ele-ments large number overall supraglottal configuration trans-mission line characteristic impedance nasal system radia-tion resistance voiced occlusive short section loss ele-ments loss-less condition relevant data classical t-network short length radiation impedance homogeneous arbitrary length good approximation netmrk element latter module wall-impedance effect unit-length modeling one-dimensional wave propagation specified length unit-length approach equal-length elementary section vocal cavity wall impedance normal speaking condition sinhe jsin complete representation finite-length model