### Citations

269 |
Theory and Application
- Rabiner, Gold
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... noise is reduced. This, in effect, corresponds to time smoothing of the short-time spectral magnitude. The neighborhood smoothing can be carried out using either linear smoothing or median smoothing =-=[26]-=- techniques. Multi-Window Smoothing This technique capitalizes on the flexibility in the choice of the analysis window. In its most general form, the idea is to obtain signal estimates using different... |

263 |
Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory
- Trees
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ne dimensional signals, the entire discussion in this section is also applicable to multidimensional signals [24]. A number of classical techniques exist for filtering stationary stochastic processes =-=[23]-=-. In particular, a problem that has been widely considered is that of filtering additive stationary noise from stationary stochastic processes. This has resulted in the well-known non-causal Wiener fi... |

194 |
Enhancement and bandwidth compression of noisy speech,”
- Lim, Oppenheim
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h a transformation in the quantization noise associated with PCM signal coding. In the problem of noise filtering of speech or image data, it is often preferable to use short-time spectral processing =-=[6,22]-=-. This is primarily because long-time filtering tends to smooth out local variations that are often important attributes of the signal. In contrast, shorttime spectral processing attempts to preserve ... |

94 | Short term spectral analysis, synthesis, and modification by discrete Fourier transform - Allen - 1977 |

62 |
Implementation of the digital phase vocoder using the fast Fourier transform.
- Portnoff
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ue based on such vocoders would suffer the same kind of pitch detection artifacts as those found in pitch-synchronous refinements of the Fairbanks approach. One exception to this is the Phase Vocoder =-=[14,2,19,20]-=-. This vocoder uses the short-time spectrum (both magnitude and phase) for representing the speech signal. Furthermore, it does not require voiced/unvoiced decisions or any pitch extraction procedures... |

53 |
Time-frequency representation of digital signals and systems based on short-time Fourier analysis
- Portnoff
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rum The short-time spectrum has been developed for continuous as well as discrete-time signals. Excellent references on the subject include the work of C. Weinstein [3], J. Allen [4], and M. Portnoff =-=[5]-=-. In this thesis, we are interested in discrete-time signal processing with the shorttime spectrum. For a discrete-time signal x(n), the short-time spectrum is a function of time as well as frequency ... |

47 | Picture coding using pseudo-random noise,” - ROBERTS - 1962 |

37 | Time-scale modification of speech based on short-time Fourier analysis,” - Portnoff - 1981 |

36 |
The use of the phase vocoder in computer music applications,”
- Moorer
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ue based on such vocoders would suffer the same kind of pitch detection artifacts as those found in pitch-synchronous refinements of the Fairbanks approach. One exception to this is the Phase Vocoder =-=[14,2,19,20]-=-. This vocoder uses the short-time spectrum (both magnitude and phase) for representing the speech signal. Furthermore, it does not require voiced/unvoiced decisions or any pitch extraction procedures... |

31 | Method for time or frequency compression-expansion of speech,” - Fairbanks, Everitt, et al. - 1954 |

13 |
and R.M.Golden, "Phase Vocoder," Bell Syst
- Flanagan
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proach first used in a technique known as Fairbank's method 13]. This approach and the various techniques based on it are described in section 6.2. An alternative approach, based on the Phase Vocoder =-=[14]-=-, was used by Portnoff [7] to develop a very successful time-scale modification technique. This approach, outlined in section 6.3, processes both the magnitude and the phase of the short-time spectrum... |

8 |
Generalised Short-Time Power Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions”,
- Schroeder, Atal
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s such as speech. The first formal definition of the short-time spectral magnitude was introduced by R. Fano [8] in his studies on speech analysis. Investigations by R. Fano, M. Schroeder and B. Atal =-=[9]-=-, and A. Kharkevich [10] were responsible for developing many aspects of short-time spectral analysis. - 10 - C. Weinstein [3] formally showed that continuous as well as discrete-time signals can be u... |

7 |
Synchronous Time Compression of Speech
- Scott, Gerger
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion [12]. Various strategies based on pitch detection have been designed to overcome the smooth transition problem in Fairbanks approach. These include the pitch-synchronous technique __ ____ - 65 - =-=[16,18]-=- and the pseudo-pitch-synchronous technique [17]. The pitch-synchronous technique chooses the short-time sections so that they correspond to multiples of the pitch period in voiced sections. This ensu... |

6 |
Classification with Spectrograms
- Altes, Estimation
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y dividing out the analysis window from the various short-time sections. More recently, an alternative approach to unique signal representation with short-time spectral magnitude was used by R. Altes =-=[11]-=-. This approach places no restriction on the signal to be represented. However, the analysis window is required to satisfy a condition which in practice means that the analysis window has to be longer... |

5 |
Short-Time Autocorrelation Functions and Power Spectra
- Fano
- 1950
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y the short-time spectral magnitude because it was physically easier to estimate for signals such as speech. The first formal definition of the short-time spectral magnitude was introduced by R. Fano =-=[8]-=- in his studies on speech analysis. Investigations by R. Fano, M. Schroeder and B. Atal [9], and A. Kharkevich [10] were responsible for developing many aspects of short-time spectral analysis. - 10 -... |

3 |
Simple Pitch-Dependent Algorithm for High Quality Speech Rate Change, Abstract
- Neuberg
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion have been designed to overcome the smooth transition problem in Fairbanks approach. These include the pitch-synchronous technique __ ____ - 65 - [16,18] and the pseudo-pitch-synchronous technique =-=[17]-=-. The pitch-synchronous technique chooses the short-time sections so that they correspond to multiples of the pitch period in voiced sections. This ensures a smoother transition between adjacent short... |

3 |
A Study of Time-Compressed Speech
- Toong
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion [12]. Various strategies based on pitch detection have been designed to overcome the smooth transition problem in Fairbanks approach. These include the pitch-synchronous technique __ ____ - 65 - =-=[16,18]-=- and the pseudo-pitch-synchronous technique [17]. The pitch-synchronous technique chooses the short-time sections so that they correspond to multiples of the pitch period in voiced sections. This ensu... |

2 |
Short-Time Fourier Analysis and its Inverse
- Weinstein
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rocessing of signals such as speech, spectral processing is often applied independently to various short-time sections of a signal. This type of processing is usually based on the short-time spectrum =-=[3]-=-. In section 1.1 of this chapter, we present the definition of the short-time spectrum for discrete-time signals. The magnitude and phase of the short-time spectrum of a signal are usually both requir... |

2 |
Non-Uniform Time-Scale Modification of Speech
- Holtzman
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...his approach, outlined in section 6.3, processes both the magnitude and the phase of the short-time spectrum. The resulting time-scale modification is generally considered to be of acceptable quality =-=[7,15]-=- for many applications. However, from a practical point of view this technique has the major disadvantage of a complicated computational structure. The time-scale modification procedure developed in s... |

2 |
B.R.Hunt, "Sectioned Methods for Image Restoration
- Trussel
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h a transformation in the quantization noise associated with PCM signal coding. In the problem of noise filtering of speech or image data, it is often preferable to use short-time spectral processing =-=[6,22]-=-. This is primarily because long-time filtering tends to smooth out local variations that are often important attributes of the signal. In contrast, shorttime spectral processing attempts to preserve ... |

2 |
Image Restoration by Short-Space Spectral Subtraction
- Lim
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...astic process with known spectrum P, (w). Although for convenience we use the notation of one dimensional signals, the entire discussion in this section is also applicable to multidimensional signals =-=[24]-=-. A number of classical techniques exist for filtering stationary stochastic processes [23]. In particular, a problem that has been widely considered is that of filtering additive stationary noise fro... |