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## A DCT-based Mod4 steganographic method (2006)

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### Citations

345 |
Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking.
- Katzenbeisser, Petitcolas
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts, such as digital images, to conceal the very existence of communication. As a result, steganography is the art and science of data smuggling since its goal is to hide the presence of communication =-=[1]-=-. Despite the fact that steganography has been notoriously used in spying and evil plots, there are many friendly applications of steganography. For instance, a photographer may record the aperture si... |

189 |
Attacks on Steganographic Systems,
- Westfeld, Pfitzmann
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...phic methods, many steganalysis methods are invented. Westfeld and Pfitzmann invented the w 2 -statistical test to detect the message embedded sequentially into a cover medium by LSB flipping methods =-=[8]-=-. Fridrich et al. employ a macroscopic measure, i.e., increment of blockiness, to determine the length of the embedded message [9]. This measure detects the stego of OutGuess [3]. However, this macros... |

170 | Defending against statistical steganalysis,” in
- Provos
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed JSteg that hides information sequentially in LSBs of the quantized DCT coefficients (qDCTCs) while skipping 0’s and 1’s [2]. Provos developed OutGuess to scatter information into the LSB of qDCTCs =-=[3]-=-. Embedding is followed by a correction procedure to ensure that the distributions of any related pair of the qDCTCs are unchanged. Westfeld employs the technique of matrix encoding to hold secret inf... |

124 | Detecting hidden messages using higher-order statistics and support vector machines,”
- Farid, Lyu
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1–1263 While the above steganalysis methods target at some specific steganographic methods, Farid invented a blind steganalysis method that detects stegos regardless of the embedding algorithm in use =-=[11]-=-. This steganalyzer employs features extracted from the image after a series of filterings, and the errors collected from an optimal linear predictor. This method is recently extended to non-linear su... |

121 | Steganalysis Using Image Quality Metrics,”
- Avcibas, Memon, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to non-linear support vector machine to classify a given image with higher accuracies [12]. Avcibas et al. invented a blind steganalysis method utilizing various image quality metrics as the features =-=[13]-=-. This method is based on the observation that an embedded and filtered image differs statistically from a nonembedded but simply filtered image. Recently, Fridrich proposed an effective feature-based... |

110 | Feature-based steganalysis for JPEG images and its implications for future design of steganographic schemes.
- Fridrich
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion that an embedded and filtered image differs statistically from a nonembedded but simply filtered image. Recently, Fridrich proposed an effective feature-based steganalysis method for JPEG images =-=[14]-=-. This classifier uses 23 features that are possibilly altered during data embedding. It detects the stego generated by JP Hide & Seek [15], OutGuess [3], F5[4] and modelbased steganography [5]. This ... |

109 | F5–A Steganographic Algorithm: High Capacity Despite Better Steganalysis. - Westfeld - 2001 |

79 | Steganalysis of JPEG images, breaking the F5 algorithm.” In:
- GOLJAN
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...heir work to non-LSB flipping methods, Fridrich et al. successfully detect the message embedded using F5 [4] by exploiting the awkward concentration of zero coefficients in the distribution of qDCTCs =-=[10]-=-. ARTICLE IN PRESS K. Wong et al. / Signal Processing 87 (2007) 1251–1263 While the above steganalysis methods target at some specific steganographic methods, Farid invented a blind steganalysis metho... |

66 | Steganalysis Using Higher-Order Image Statistics,”
- Lyu, Farid
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...series of filterings, and the errors collected from an optimal linear predictor. This method is recently extended to non-linear support vector machine to classify a given image with higher accuracies =-=[12]-=-. Avcibas et al. invented a blind steganalysis method utilizing various image quality metrics as the features [13]. This method is based on the observation that an embedded and filtered image differs ... |

41 | Attacking the outguess,”
- Fridrich, Goljan, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...age embedded sequentially into a cover medium by LSB flipping methods [8]. Fridrich et al. employ a macroscopic measure, i.e., increment of blockiness, to determine the length of the embedded message =-=[9]-=-. This measure detects the stego of OutGuess [3]. However, this macroscopic measure is limited to LSB flipping approaches. Extending their work to non-LSB flipping methods, Fridrich et al. successfull... |

9 |
Model Based Steganography
- Sallee
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of a coefficient is decremented. Sallee proposed a model-based steganographic scheme that treats a cover medium as a random variable that obeys some parametric distribution such as Cauchy or Gaussian =-=[5]-=-. The medium is divided into two parts, i.e., the deterministic, and the indeterministic part where the secret message is embedded. Miyake et al. define diagonal bands for each 8 8 DCT block, and the ... |

9 |
Digital steganography utilizing features of JPEG images,
- Iwata, Miyake, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... part where the secret message is embedded. Miyake et al. define diagonal bands for each 8 8 DCT block, and the number of zeros (in a zero sequence) in each band are modified to embed exactly one bit =-=[6]-=-. If the frequency of zeros within a zero sequence in a band is odd, that band stores the message bit 1, and vice versa. Seki et al. apply modulus arithmetic on the sum of all 64 qDCTCs from a block t... |

2 |
Quantizationbased image steganography without data hiding position memorization
- Seki, Kobayashi, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f zeros within a zero sequence in a band is odd, that band stores the message bit 1, and vice versa. Seki et al. apply modulus arithmetic on the sum of all 64 qDCTCs from a block to embed information =-=[7]-=-. The coefficient(s) is (are) modified by exploiting the quantization errors so that the sum yields the desired remainder when divided by a fixed number d. On the other hand, along with the evolution ... |

1 |
Software available at hftp.funet.f1i
- Upham, Jsteg
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...efly review research carried out particularly in the DCT domain. Upham invented JSteg that hides information sequentially in LSBs of the quantized DCT coefficients (qDCTCs) while skipping 0’s and 1’s =-=[2]-=-. Provos developed OutGuess to scatter information into the LSB of qDCTCs [3]. Embedding is followed by a correction procedure to ensure that the distributions of any related pair of the qDCTCs are un... |